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VOLUME XXXII-4
ELT
APPA G SOCIETY
RNATIONAL HONORARY ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN EDUCATORS
1111

 
-
The Delta Kappa G rri rin
lefin
THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA SOCIETY
INTERNATIONAL HONORARY ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN EDUCATORS
u rri rnier 19 (&
VOLUME XXXI 1-4

 
The eIta
r
Ka_ppa. Gamma
ullefin
DUCATIONAL
R E
SS
S SOC I ATION
OF
AMERICA
HELEN E. HINSHAW, Editor
PUBLISHED BY THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA SOCIETY
VOLUME XXXII-4 SUMMER, 1966
CONTENTS
ARTICLES ON THE 1966-67 PROGRAM FOCUS
Aluktm,
Dori_
The Nurture of Creativity
Edna
E. Parker
A New Awakening of an Old Idea—
Creativity
Rosanna Moore
The Two Faces of Creativity
Marcia D. Zwier
Imagination and Its Relation
to the Fine Arts
Margaret Royalty Edwards
OTHER ARTICLES
'United We Stand'
Catherine Nutterville
Denis Diderot on
Women
Dorothy Wirtz
The Historian's Task
Clarice T. Campbell
Creativity (Poem)
Ethel Miller
Communism versus the American Dream
Lois
Bissett
On Literary Pilgrimage
Eleanor
B. North
Administrative Behavior and
Organizational Climate—a Study
Phyllis U. Coker
Why a Foreign Language?
Anne B. Lous
Another Invitation
Carolyn Guss
In Memoriam
Index to Volume XXXII
INTERNATIONAL
COMMITTEE
ON
PUBLICATIONS
AND
PUBLICITY
HELEN E. HINSHAW
Chairman
VELMA I3IDDLE
KATHRYN G. HANSEN
(1965-1969)
CORNELIA
(1964-1968)
HOLMES
(1963-1967)
MARIAN L. CURLING
(1962-1966)
CAROLYN GUSS
(ex officio)
CATHERINE M. RATHMAN
(ex officio)
5
11
14
17
20
26
29
34
35
39
45
50
53
55
60
Copyright © The Delta Koppa Gamma Society 1966
Published four times each year—October, January, March, and May
—at 416 West Twelfth Street, Austin, Texas. Mailing address: P. 0.
Box 1589, Austin, Texas 78767. Subscriptions, $3 per year. Single
copies, 75
cents each. International membership dues include sub-
scriptions to
THE DELTA
KAPPA GAMMA BULLETIN and the NEWS
OF THE DELTA KAPPA GAMMA
SOCIETY.
Second-class postage paid
at Austin, Texas.
POSTMASTER: Return requested.

 
la u-r C3
0
LJ
F Q
1\11r Ft I 13 LJ-1
-
0 S
Edna E. Parker
Dr. Parker, a Mu State past president, served on
the international Committee on Program that pre-
pared the 1963-67
Program Manual
and on the
1964-66 international Committee on Research. She
has contributed to Florida State University studies,
written parts of five state curriculum guides, and
chaired committees that wrote three publications.
Betty Jo Kowalchuk, Omicron Chapter, county art
this
coordinator,
article. Esther
provided
Mayfield,
illustrative
Theta Chapter,
information
county
for
language arts coordinator, wrote the poem.
Rosanna Moore .
•Miss
Moore, a new member of Gamma Tau Chap-
ter, Ohio, taught junior and senior high school sci-
ence before switching to art education. Her articles
on art projects used in her classes have appeared in
School Arts, Grade Teacher,
and
The Instructor
magazines.
Marcia
D. Zwier .
•Dr. Zwier, Delta Tau Chapter, Tennessee, also a
new member, received her master's degree in clini-
cal psychology at MacMurray College, Illinois, and
her Ph.D. in school psychology at the University of
Illinois. She is currently exploring reasons for some
individuals, and not others, being chosen as co-
problem-solvers in voluntary classroom problem-
solving situations.
Margaret Royalty Edwards Mrs.
Edwards, thirteenth Texas poet laureate and
honorary member of Zeta Chapter, has received
several awards for her
Lure of the Road and Other
Poems
and
Poets Laureate of Texas 1932-1966.
Her
other published writings include poems, stories,
and magazines articles; a number of songs; a news-
paper column, "Think"; and biographical sketches
in
Ten Men from Baylor, Baylor's Generals,
and
Texas Handbook.
Catherine Nutterville •
Dr. Nutterville, a Delta Kappa Gamma past presi-
dent, at 78 is working with VISTA ( Volunteers in
Service to America ) at the Washington, D.C.
United Planning Organization's Neighborhood Le-
gal Services office. A pioneer in special education
in Montana, she served as school psychologist and,
when the State Mental Hygiene Clinics were estab-
lished, as clinical psychologist. Later she taught at
the College of Great Falls, where she remained
until her retirement.
Dorothy Wirtz
Dr. Wirtz, Sigma Chapter, Arizona, taught at Wis-
consin and Minnesota state universities, has been
active in politics, and was for a time deputy state
treasurer of Arizona. While on a sabbatical leave,
she completed her book,
Graphic Concepts of
French Literature.
Her poetry and articles on art
and language arts have appeared in education
journals.
3

 
13C) UM 0 LI I cD
NrrFu
Et ILYTC) Ft S
Clarice
T.
Campbell . .
Lois
Ethel
Billings
Miller
Bissett
Eleanor
B.
North . .
Phyllis U. Coker .
Anne B. Lous
Mrs. Campbell, a member of Beta Eta Chapter,
California, will complete a master's degree in his-
tory at the University of Mississippi next August—
her second M.A.—and begin work on a doctorate
there in September. For 14 years she was a teacher
in the Pasadena schools. On leaves of absence she
spent one year each at Rust College, Mississippi,
and Claflin College, South Carolina, as guest in-
.
structor in history. From 1963 to 1965 she was
assistant professor of history at Tougaloo College,
Mississippi.
Miss Miller, a third grade teacher in Muncie, In-
diana, is a member of Eta Chapter. Her articles on
education and religion have appeared in seven pub-
lications with national circulation. Miss Miller is
active in church work, in wbich she has held local,
district, and conference offices, and in community
projects.
Mrs. Bissett's experience includes five years of tutor-
ing—specializing in reading, language, and prob-
lems of emotionally blocked children—in addition
to teaching in Texas public schools, in special adult
education classes, and with illiterates. She is pres-
ently doing a study of the work of Dr. Marie Mon-
*
tessori. Mrs. Bissett is a member of Delta Psi Chap-
ter, Texas.
Miss North, Iota Chapter, Georgia, was professor
of Shakespeare and English literature at Berry Col-
lege from 1951 to 1963. When she retired she re-
ceived a Literary Research Grant which is enabling
her to study in some of the world's finest libraries.
Annually Miss North conducts Literary Pilgrimages
for university students—one year American students
abroad; the next, students from overseas in the U.S.
Dr. Coker left her position as Chattanooga director
of
assignment
secondary
as
education
state director
April
of a
1
new
for a
program
three-year
un-
der the federal Elementary and Secondary Educa-
tion Act. She will give leadership in curriculum
development in selected cities. Dr. Coker received
one of 57 Special Scholarships of $2,500 for grad-
uate study given by the Society in 1960.
Mrs. Lous, a new member of Eta Chapter, South
Dakota, and an American citizen since March, was
born and educated in Bermuda. Married to a
Danish entomologist, she lived for 23 years in South
Africa, Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina and traveled
in Europe and Central and South America. At the
universities
majored in Spanish,
of Rio de
French,
Janeiro
Portuguese,
and Montevideo
Latin,
she
and
English.

 
Introducing the 1966-67 Program Focus
The Nurture of
Creativity
...in
ourselves
...in our colleagues
...in our students
Edna E. Parker
C
REATIVE THINKING
implies a spe-
cial kind of activity with no
clearly defined boundaries or guide
lines. Newell, Shaw, and Simon in
their research, described in "The
Process of Creative Thinking," term
an activity (problem solving) to be
creative in so far as it meets one or
more of the following conditions:
I.
The product of the thinking has
novelty and value ( either for the
thinker or for his culture).
2.
The thinking is unconventional, in
the sense that it requires modifica-
tion or rejection of previously ac-
cepted ideas.
3.
The thinking requires high motiva-
tion and persistence taking place
either over a considerable span of
time (continuously or intermittent-
ly) or at high intensity)
According to the above definition,
the experience described in the fol-
lowing paragraphs can be called
creative.
Once while I was watching a
group of five-year-olds as they
worked on individual or small group
projects, the efforts of a little boy
named Lee attracted my attention.
He was trying to solve a problem of
transportation that he had encoun-
tered in his block-building activity.
Lee wanted to construct a house
in one part of the open-air work
'Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert A.
Simon, "The Process of Creative Thinking,"
Contemporary Approaches to Creative Thinking,
ed. Howard E. Gruber. Glen Terrell and Michael
Wertheiner ( New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
1962) pp. 65-66.
Dr. Parker is director of elementary education
in the Palm Beach County (Florida) Schools.

 
6
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
area. The blocks that he needed
were housed in a large storage bin
some distance away. His problem
was to get the blocks from the bin
to the building site. At first, he
carried the blocks in his arms—one
block at a time. This process was
much too slow. Soon he found a
small wagon. With a triumphant
look he pulled the wagon to the bin
for a load of blocks. He pushed the
wagon inside the bin and rapidly
piled on the blocks in a helter-
skelter fashion. As he moved the
wagon all the blocks came tumbling
down. After sizing up the situation,
Lee reloaded the wagon. This time
be carefully placed the blocks in
even, orderly rows. Then as he be-
gan to move the wagon, the blocks
remained in place. But, as he
reached the door sill, one front
wagon wheel went over the sill be-
fore the other one did. The wagon
became unbalanced and again the
blocks fell off.
Patiently, Lee carefully reloaded
the wagon. This time as the wagon
approached the door sill, he sat in
front and slowly guided both front
wheels so that they moved over the
sill at the same time. At last, he was
successful. He bad found an effi-
cient way of transporting blocks.
Beaming with happiness, he con-
tinued to transport the blocks
needed for his house.
Although the foregoing situation
occurred at the kindergarten level,
it contains elements that are essen-
tial for creative activity at any
level. In this situation the environ-
ment was favorable for creative
thinking and the little boy was able
to function adequately within the
environment. Among the environ-
mental factors observed were (1)
freedom to try ideas and to make
mistakes, ( 2 ) availability of mate-
rials with which to work, (3) a
schedule that permitted time for
carrying out activities, (4) a per-
missive atmosphere within the se-
curity of an overall plan, (5) a
teacher who was willing to help
when needed but refrained from
giving unnecessary directions, and
( 6 ) a feeling of mutual trust and
respect on the part of teacher and
pupils.
The qualities observed in Lee
that contributed to his feeling of
adequacy were his confidence in
his ability to achieve a clearly de-
fined goal, willingness to persist in
a difficult situation, acceptance of a
stumbling-block as a challenge, and
a feeling that he was an accepted
and respected member of the group.
The terms
creativity
and
ade-
quacy
are frequently used synony-
mously. Certainly, the factors that
contribute to the development of
creativity also contribute to the
development of feelings of ade-
quacy. Thus, in the nurture of
creativity attention must be given
to the development of adequate
functioning individuals and to an
environment in which creativity can
flourish.
Creativity in Ourselves
Perhaps the most outstanding
study dealing with problems of age
and creative productivity was made

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin 7
by Lehman. 1
On the basis of his
studies he reached the conclusion
that the rate of good production
does not change much in the mid-
dle years and that the decline is
gradual in older years. He has been
careful to point out that it is not
age change itself but the factors
that accompany age change—in-
creased family responsibilities, de-
crease in physical strength, con-
tentment with past accomplish-
ments, lack of recognition, im-
bedded habits of conformity, and
others—that bring about a reduc-
tion in creative production.
By avoiding the conditions that
account for decreased creativity, an
individual can continue to be cre-
atively productive throughout life.
To develop creativity in himself,
each has to be the engineer who
charts his own course, supported by
the cooperative action of colleagues.
A person can explore ways of
providing a more favorable environ-
ment for creative production and
of developing feelings of adequacy.
Some suggestions are:
1.
Capitalize on experience of
others in order to develop confi-
dence in self.
2.
Accept the challenge of an op-
portunity to share creative efforts.
3.
Seek an opportunity to com-
municate ideas and dreams to a
person in whom you have great
confidence, one wbo is a good
listener and who accepts ideas ex-
pressed.
,11.
C. Lehman,
Age and Achievement.
Prince-
ton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1953.
4. Be willing to experiment with
untried ways of doing things.
5.
Accept needs and blocks to
goals as challenges.
6. Take time to do whatever is
necessary to maintain good physical
health.
By accepting the fact that we
have the capacity for creativity and
that it can be developed, we be-
come more able to encourage and
foster its development in others.
Creativity in Colleagues
Many adults have grown up in an
authoritarian environment and have
developed inadequate self-con-
cepts. They fear new or unfamiliar
experiences. Yet, through contact
with facilitating persons they can
develop more fully functioning per-
sonalities. Individuals and groups
can do many things to stimulate and
support them as they undertake
new adventures:
1.
Serve as a patron or sponsor.
2.
Recognize potential of the in-
dividual.
3.
Listen to ideas.
4.
Encourage experimentation.
5.
Suggest sources of informa-
tion and materials.
6.
Encourage persistence and
new approaches when first efforts
are not successful.
7. Express praise when it is de-
served.
8.
Provide opportunities for oth-
ers to enjoy and appreciate the
products of creative efforts.
9.
Provide opportunities for par-
ticipation in creative group activi-
ties.

 
8
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
10. Recognize the importance of
good inter-personal relationships by
extending warm and friendly greet-
ings, condolences during time of
sorrow, and congratulations over
joyous events.
In spite of seemingly slow
progress, the results of efforts in
behalf of colleagues may be be-
yond measurement. As people ex-
perience the creative process, they
learn to foster the development of
creativity in others.
Creativity in Students
The beliefs that teachers have
about creativity affect the kinds of
experiences they provide for chil-
dren. Teachers who value creativity
will be concerned about the class-
room climate, the feelings of chil-
dren, and their ways of working.
This concern will find expression in
the following procedures:
1.
Plan with children as to the
arrangement of their room and
organization for living together so
as to have freedom in which to pur-
sue their interests.
2.
Help children in selecting
problems that relate to their actual
needs, interests, and mental capaci-
ties.
3.
Assist small groups in explor-
ing specific aspects of the larger
problem and in sharing findings.
The sharing may take such forms
as original plays, discussion panels,
reports, art and musical experi-
ences, and creative writing.
4.
Welcome fun and play.
5.
Show respect to students re-
gardless of behavior.
6. Permit students to express
ideas even in jest.
7.
Encourage imagination and
brainstorming.
8.
Encourage and tolerate (not
hinder) unexpected answers.
9.
Avoid use of threats.
10. Give praise when deserved.
11.
Avoid use of stereotyped pat-
terns such as the coloring of mime-
ographed May baskets, copying
pitter-patter raindrops from the
board, and copying poetry that has
no meaning for children.
12.
Avoid teacher-imposed stan-
dards when evaluating creative
efforts of children.
13.
Be acceptive of the child's
genuine efforts in relationship to his
stage of development.
14.
Plan a schedule that is flex-
ible enough to permit completion
of activity while interest is high or
to take advantage of an unusual
situation or teachable moment.
An unusual learning situation de-
veloped in a third grade classroom
when a child brought a very young
fawn to school. The baby deer bad
been found by the child's father.
The children were excited, de-
lighted to have a real live baby
deer in their classroom. When they
learned that the little fawn had lost
its mother, their sympathies were
aroused. As they talked, the teacher
wrote some of their statements on
the chalkboard. Then, as the chil-
dren repeated these statements,
they sensed a rhythmic pattern that
they developed into a poem. Almost
spontaneously one little boy said,
"I know bow to sing that poem."

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
9
Whereupon he did "sing" the poem.
The children were so pleased with
his tune that when the music
teacber came they asked her to
write the music for the song. Thus
the visit of the fawn provided the
stimulus for a creative experience.
Many Ways to Creativity
Creative thinking is not limited
to any one area of the curriculum.
Experiences in any area can con-
tribute to the development of cre-
ativity. Art experiences, however,
have long been recognized for their
contribution. Developing and mani-
festing art experience that will re-
quire creative thinking or behavior
on the part of students is one of the
vital functions of art education.
One elementary art teacher
challenged a third grade class with
the problem of changing the form
of a piece of paper. After a brief dis-
cussion on several obvious
ways
of
changing a two-dimensional paper
into a three-dimensional form, the
children were encouraged to experi-
ment. Paper was provided in as-
sorted sizes, weights, and colors,
ranging from cardboard to tissue.
Results were varied and exciting.
Children rolled paper into cylinders
and cones, folded paper both over-
lapping and accordion, crushed,
wrinkled, cut in a spiral, slashed,
stretched, and curled. Each child
was delighted with the forms that
developed.
At the point of what seemed to be
the maximum peak of achievement,
they explored the problem of keep-
ing these delightful creations from
gradually reverting toward the two-
dimensional forms. Experimenting
with ways of fastening, they de-
veloped techniques of joining
which best suited their individual
forms.
As the children evaluated the ex-
perience they expressed enthusiasm
for the great variety and unusual
quality of each child's work. Each
was permitted to display his cre-
ation in an appropriate place in the
classroom or throughout the school.
To emphasize the point that
there are many ways of creative
expression, the following verses il-
lustrate the way creative writing
can be developed in children and
also serve as an example of the
creative writing of one person.
TO A COMPOSITION TEACHER
ESTHER MAYFIELD
Me!
I am a creative composition.
A handful of unknown words,
Commas,
Periods,
Is not a composition.
No, I am
One child.

 
10 The
Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
Composition is only understanding,
Understanding me.
I am different
Because all the words
That have happened to me
Since the day I was born
Have been added together—
And the sum is
Me.
My composition is a continual surprise.
Look from my eyes,
Feel with my hands,
Hear what I hear,
Taste what I taste,
Smell what I smell.
I am new.
I have not happened before.
You try to measure me with a red pencil.
You believe that my words can be caged,
Explained,
Marked with a value.
My words have no boundaries;
I understand them;
They are too close to me to have a price.
Let me tell you about my words—
Let me whisper them,
Sing them,
Shout them.
Let me play with them.
Do not make me put them on paper first;
You push them around with your red pencil.
I am a creative composition because I am alive.
I am alive and I am made of words—
Happy words,
Solemn words,
Dark words,
Shining words.
Teaching is accepting my words;
They are the years of my life.
Grading is trying to understand my words,
Me!
Imaginative retardation is far more prevalent in our society than intellec-
tual retardation, and far more debilitating.
DOUGLAS MORGAN,
professor of philosophy
University of Texas

 
A
New Awakening of an Old
Idea —
CREATIVITY
Rosanna Moore
M
ANY DIFFICULT and involved
definitions of creativity are
given, but one that is most easily
understood is this:
Creativity is the ability of an indi-
vidual to associate the accumulated data
from his experiences into varieties of
thought patterns. ( 6 )
From these thought patterns can
then come countless new things:
works of art, inventions, discoveries
in research, prose, poetry, and many
other kinds of creations.
Creative expression often flour-
ishes when one's life or ideas are
threatened. Perhaps this is the rea-
son for the re-awakening of interest
in creativity since the first atomic
bomb was dropped and for the in-
creasing intensity of interest since
Russia's first Sputnik was launched
successfully.
Once "creativity" was used al-
most exclusively in speaking of
artists. Now it is more and more
heard in regard to industrialists,
politicians, scientists, educators,
and laymen.
Creative Individuals Needed
Private enterprise as well as
democratic forms of government
need more creative individuals; but
mass production and mass com-
munication tend to develop a so-
ciety of conformists. At the time
when through automation we have
provided for more leisure, through
standardization we have stifled
creativity. It would seem that the
schools should identify and encour-
age creativity to balance with this
conformity, and develop ability in
youth to entertain themselves rath-
er than be entertained.
Research results indicate that
Miss Moore teaches art in grades seven to
twelve at Watkins Memorial High School,
Pateskala, Ohio.

 
12
The Delta Kappa
creative ability is not necessarily
highly correlated with intelligence.
Creative children who do not have
high IQ's and children of high in-
telligence may be equal in school
achievement. There is increasing
evidence that creativity is a vital
factor to be considered in the suc-
cess or failure of children and
adults. While we cannot teach chil-
dren how to create, we can provide
the atmosphere which will stimu-
late the desire to do so.
Cultivating the Potential
At the junior high school level
and beyond, especially, there is a
need for greater concentration upon
the development of creative expres-
sion. Below this age level, children
are freer of inhibitions and less
afraid to express new and different
ideas. The elementary self-con-
tained classroom has an atmosphere
more conducive to creative activi-
ties. As children grow toward
adolescence, however, they become
hesitant of being different, and de-
partmentalized teaching tends to
stress subject matter. It is at this
age that we can either kill or culti-
vate the creative potential which
our country so desperately needs.
Although creativity can and
should be encouraged at all age
levels in all areas of school life, it
is perhaps most easily nurtured in
art classes where one of the chief
objectives is the production of
original ideas. Also, the art class
by its very nature has greater free-
dom, which provides a better at-
mosphere for creative expression
Gamma Bulletin
and experience in the creative
process than is usually found in
other subject areas. With the help
of all teachers, however, the origi-
nality which is brought forth in art
classes can be encouraged and de-
veloped further so that truly crea-
tive individuals can be products of
our schools.
Within the Present Curriculum?
What are some ways by which
we can encourage creativity within
the present curriculum? First, we
need to have in our objectives suf-
ficient emphasis upon the develop-
ment of creative personalities. Then
we can-
-
put understanding above knowl-
edge
—teach
children how to fail intelli-
gently, to keep on trying and try-
ing again
—be aware of signs of creativity
and commend any small acts of
constructive originality
—give special recognition to writ-
ings, drawings, and discoveries
which show the creative touch
—develop
sensitivity of perception
—develop sensitivity to harmonious
relationships
—encourage
the attitude of inquiry
and promote the spirit of research.
More specifically, in our class-
rooms we can ask—
"What is . . . ?" "How else . . . ?"
"What else . . . ?"
"To what other uses can this be
put?"
"What would happen if . . ?"
"What can we borrow and adapt
to our needs?"

 
The Delta Kappa
"Who else could have filled . . .
(historical person's) . . . shoes?"
—provide
opportunity and incentive
for writing original stories and
poems
—"publish" creative literature pro-
duced by our classes
—emphasize the creative thinking
which is found in the classics
—organize an "Ideas" club
—present
history as a series of
ideas
—let children find out things for
themselves; don't
tell
them
—compare and contrast ideas
—organize debates on controversial
subjects
—plan a Hall of Fame for those who
tried but lost; discuss these per-
sonalities
—let
students make up crossword
puzzles using words from history,
science, English, and other sub-
jects
—assign
readings on the same topic
from several sources; compare
and contrast
—plan
"You Are There" programs
—encourage:
original science projects or ex-
periments
more than one solution to math
and science problems
invention of new or better
science equipment
imagination of "things to come"
creation of new games to play
outside reading, particularly bi-
ographies of creative person-
alities
original drawings of historical
events or scientific discov-
eries.
These suggestions, and many more,
Gamma Bulletin
13
can be used with modifications at
all grade levels but especially at
the junior and senior high school
levels, where creative learning is
least likely to occur.
Industry and scientific education
institutions have led in the con-
struction and use of specific courses
for development of creative imagi-
nation. We, in the public and pri-
vate schools, may not need to add
courses for this purpose. Within
the present curriculum framework
we can help to develop the creative
individuals so important to the sur-
vival of the democratic way of life.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.
BARKAN, MANUEL.
Through Art to
Creativity.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
Inc., 1960.
2. BARRON, STRANG, JONES, and HANEY.
"Special Journal Feature on Creativ-
ity,"
NEA Journal,
March, 1961, pp.
17-28.
3.
D'AMICO, VICTOR. "What Is Creative
Teaching?" School
Arts,
January,
1955, pp. 8-10.
4. GETZELS, JACOB
W. and JOHNSON,
PHILLIP
W. "Creativity Versus the
High I.Q.,"
The University of Chicago
Reports,
October, 1960.
5. JEFFERSON, BLANCHE.
Teaching Art
to Children.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
Inc., 1960.
6. JOHNSON,
D. F. "Creativity, A New
Challenge,"
School Arts,
October,
1958, pp. 24-26.
7. T .._,OWENFELD, VICTOR.
" Creativity and
Art Education,"
School Arts,
October,
1959, pp. 6-12.
8. OSBORN, ALEX.
Applied Imagination.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons,
1957.
9.
Your Creative Power.
New
York: Dell Publishing Company, Inc.,
1948.

 
The Two
Faces of Creativity
Marcia D. Zwier
T
HE FINEST COMPLIMENT
which
one person can pay another
nowadays is to describe him as
"creative." The term
creativity
is
a many-splendored thing"; its con-
ventional meaning is related to
both the chance whimsy of the apt
remark of the youngster and the
awesome grandeur of a Beethoven
symphony. In whatever situation
applied, this magic word connotes
the new, the imaginative, the origi-
nal.
Many persons in the fields of psy-
chology and education are con-
cerned about the precise meaning
of the word "creativity." If the
scientist is to formulate generaliza-
tions based on studied observations
of this type of behavior, then he
must be able to differentiate it
clearly from other forms of be-
havior. If the educator is to build
into the educational enterprise
recognition of all of the cognitive
potentialities of the learner, then
some consensus is badly needed
here too.
Who is the creative person?
Which behaviors having which
kinds of characteristics are appro-
priately labeled thus? The word,
of course, represents a concept. It
is a
construct
used to describe
something which does not occupy
space and is not directly measur-
able. On that we should agree from
the outset.
Two Streams of Thought
In the accumulating body of lit-
erature associated with creativity,
two main streams of thought have
emerged. These two faces of crea-
tivity are quite different; to hold
one is to exclude the other for the
most part. One approach implies
an operational orientation diamet-
rically opposed to the other. Fortu-
nately, the apparent conflict is not
related to disciplinary lines; i.e.,
tbe educators are not on one side
of the fence and the psychologists
on the other. Eminent persons as-
sociated with both of these fields
are represented on each side.
First of all, a group of investiga-
tors represented by Bruner, Guil-
ford, and Torrance view creativity
as a general ability encompassing a
number of cognitive and personality
characteristics. (2) (4) (7) To be
adjudged creative, they believe, a
person must evidence ability to
solve problems in a systematic and
effective way, must exhibit original-
ity and an adaptive flexibility with
regard to existing need and situa-
tion, must demonstrate fluency in
his ideas and working vocabulary,
and must be highly sensitive to
problems. In essence, whenever a
person behaves as an ingenious
problem-solver or problem-finder,
Dr. Zwier is assistant professor of educational
psychology at Middle Tennessee State Univer-
sity,
Murfreesboro.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
15
he may be described as a creative
individual or his behavior may be
described as creative.
Torrance and Bruner stress the
importance of a general awareness
on the part of educators that all
children, to a certain degree, could
behave creatively. They advocate
strongly an atmosphere of en-
couragement in the classroom—a
planned nurturing of all behaviors
associated with discovering prob-
lems and solutions. They are vitally
concerned about over-emphasis on
the teaching of skills and instruc-
tion which tends to suppress the
development of the self-initiated
or does not provide sufficient time
for creative expression. In short,
these investigators view the crea-
tive potential as a delicate bud
found in all persons which needs,
in order to blossom, the careful nur-
turing of a perceptive teacher.
Another group of educators and
psychologists, such as Ausubel,
MacKinnon, and Roe, take a differ-
ent approach to creativity. (1) (5)
(6) To these persons, the creative
individual is one who has produced
a singularly unique identifiable
something. The process of behaving
creatively is identifiable in as much
as it is related to an original and
significant contribution which by
the test of time and in the opinion
of experts in the field is adjudged
so. To meet a creative person is
to meet a member of a tiny minor-
ity who has given to society a
highly unique product or idea. For
every one thousand highly intelli-
gent persons there is only one truly
creative person. The term, this
group believes, cannot possibly be
used to describe the efforts of the
sixth grader who writes an original
poem and also the writings of Wil-
liam Shakespeare. The activity of
the sixth grader is of a different
kind rather than of a different de-
gree; i.e., it represents qualitative
as well as quantitative differences
in behavior.
Methods of Exploring
The experimental methods em-
ployed in the exploration of crea-
tivity by the two groups of investi-
gators would, of necessity, be quite
different. Those who view creativ-
ity as a general developing process
have constructed a variety of tests
which may be used to identify the
creative person. For example, the
child who gives many unique and
original answers to a question such
as "How many uses can you think
of for a brick?" is exhibiting such
potential. Those who view creativ-
ity as related to an eminent product
seek out those few individuals in
society who have made singularly
unique contributions and explore
all facets of their personalities in
relation to the personalities of oth-
ers adjudged to be successful in
their respective fields but not cre-
ative.
In general, the second group of
investigators have found the cre-
ative person to be the individual
who has a good opinion of himself
but is frank in his criticism of self.
Further, he is inventive, deter-
mined, independent, enthusiastic,

 
16
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
industrious, and inclined above all
things to stress his individuality.
The noncreative but successful
person is the individual who is
responsible, sincere, reliable, de-
pendable, clear thinking, tolerant,
understanding, and inclined above
all things to stress good character
and sympathetic concern for others.
Some of the behaviors this group
associates with their behavioral
descriptions of creative persons in-
clude: "a need to find out things by
himself," "a preoccupation with pet
projects," "an enthusiasm about all
projects on which he works," "ten-
dency to question the orders of su-
periors," and "dislike for routine
jobs." (3)
To use an analogy—a child
is
bouncing a ball on the sidewalk in
front of his home. He notices sud-
denly that if he drops the ball from
a position above his head it makes
a different sound when it hits the
pavement than when be drops it
from a position near his waist. So,
he proceeds to cock his head and
listen to the sounds of the ball as
it bits the pavement. His grand-
father is Dr. Pauling, a scientific
genius who has given the world
the understanding of a process of
breathtaking propensity. Are both
of these persons behaving creative-
ly? Is it not possible that one is
simply out of the other's "league"?
A Problem
of Semantics
It would appear that the two
faces of creativity are basically in-
compatible even though they would
call for relatively similar recom-
mendations for the classroom. To
choose one approach over the other
is not to be more democratic. Rath-
er, this is a problem of functional
semantics.
Ausubel has suggested that dif-
ferent terms be used to denote these
two faces: the term
general creative
abilities
for the potential for origi-
nal behaviors, and the term
crea-
tivity
for those behaviors associated
with unique products. (1) Wheth-
er or not we make changes in our
terminology, we owe it to our
readers and our listeners to specify
which approach we are taking to
this thing called
creativity.
REFERENCES
1.
AUSUBEL, D.
The Psychology of Mean,-
ingful Verbal Learning.
New York:
Grune and Stratton, 1963.
2.
BRUNER, J. "The Act of Discovery."
Harvard Educational Review,
1961,
31, 21-32.
3.
BuEL, W. "The Validity of the Be-
havioral Rating Scale Items for the
Assessment of Individual Creativity."
Journal of Applied Psychology,
1960,
44, 407-12.
4.
GUILFORD, J.
"Creativity."
American
Psychology,
1950, 9, 444-54.
5.
MACKINNON, D. "The Nature and
Nurture of Creative Talent."
Ameri-
can Psychology,
1962, 17, 484-95.
6.
ROE,
A. "Crucial Life Experiences in
the Development of Scientists." In:
Torrance, E. P. ( Ed. )
Talent and
Education.
Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1960.
7.
TORRANCE,
E. P. "Gifted Children."
In:
Recent Research and Develop-
ments and Their Implications for
Teacher Education.
Thirteenth Year-
book, American Association of Col-
leges for Teacher Education. Wash-
ington, D. C.: The Association, 1960,
64-72.

 
IMAGINATION and Its
Relation to the Fine Arts
Margaret Royalty Edwards
TllE
TERM ART,
to many people,
connotes painting in all medi-
ums, sculpture, and architecture;
but in the broader application of
the term in its plural form, Fine
Arts, it can also include music, lit-
erature especially poetry, and
speech.
All of these fine arts are so close-
ly related to each other that the
more one knows of any one of them
the easier it is to understand and
appreciate the others. Even the
phraseology has became inter-
changeable among them to a cer-
tain extent so that expressions such
as the
tone
of a painting, the
shad-
ing
of the playing of a piece of
music, the
tone-color
of a reading
or an oration, or the atmosphere,
background, or perspective of any
of them are now quite common.
Emerson has said, "The law of
harmonic sounds reappears in the
harmonic colours."
Because of this close relationship,
it is difficult to obtain a working
knowledge of one without acquiring
at least some of the fundamentals
of the others. All are related to
imagination and all depend upon
it for perfection. "Art, universally,
is the spirit creative," wrote Emer-
son, who delved deep into both
the arts and the imagination.
Imagination Defined
Whereas
history and the various
forms of science treat facts, it is
left to the arts to supply the feeling
or the impressions—the emotional
side or the "spifit," as it were. A
clear cut definition of imagination
is difficult as it is apt to be confused
with fancy, conception, or memory.
Fancy, however, deals with the
light and trivial while imagination
is concerned with deeper and more
lasting things, proceeding from the
depth of the soul and bringing
forth great truths. Imagination
gives people ideals, inspiration,
and sympathy for their fellow man.
While it may include both con-
ception and memory, it goes far
beyond them in scope.
Mrs. Edwards, the thirteenth poet laureate of
Texas
(1957-59),
has had collections of poems
published as well as biographical sketches.

 
18
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
A mere conception of a thing
would deal with reality, while
imagination brought into play
would tend to "idealize the real."
This does riot mean that conception
is not essential to imagination, for
it is. The artist should be able to
"see" his picture on the canvas or
the sculptor his statue in a piece of
marble before the work is actually
started. A reader certainly would
not think of attempting a perform-
ance without first having a clear
understanding himself of what he
would read. No one can express in
any form that which he does not
feel himself, and the feeling must
be strong enough to convince the
person who will see or hear it.
To make a picture imaginative
does not mean that it should be
unreal or untrue to nature, but it
does mean that it should portray
more than just the cold objects.
Imagination will have a tendency
to make things appear more natural
by bringing them to life, so to
speak. The same is true of speech
or music. A simple stating of facts
or merely playing the right notes on
a musical instrument without bring-
ing the imagination into play may
not even convey the intended mean-
ing.
Supplies Background
Not only is imagination necessary
to fill in the skeleton of bare facts
but it is also needed in all of the
arts to supply situation and back-
ground. One can realize immedi-
ately bow lacking in interest a
poem, a picture, or a piece of music
would be without either. For ex-
ample, the mere picture of a sleep-
ing child might not attract much
attention; but place a watchful dog
at its side and surround the two
by a forest with the shadows deep-
ening into dusk, and the result will
stimulate the imagination in both
areas. To some this scene could
mean a complete human interest
story.
In many cases the background
contributes as much appeal as the
remainder of a painting. Atmos-
phere or tone-color, so important in
a picture, is the product of the
imagination. Through this medium
the worker in any of the arts con-
veys cheerfulness, happiness, joy,
sorrow, loneliness, desolation, or
other moods.
Situation and background in
paintings and sculpture differ, how-
ever, from those in speech and
music. The painter and sculptor put
their work in a concrete form, using
their alert imaginations to make the
desired impressions upon the minds
of observers. In speech and music,
which are expressed in the abstract,
the speaker or musician must use
tone, inflection, shading so skill-
fully that the hearer will, through
his own imagination, recreate the
intended impression in his own
mind. A mechanically perfect piece
of work may fail because of lack of
imagination or feeling, for it is
through this means that the appeal
of each art touches the heart, the
only means by which one may
"idealize the real and realize the

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
19
ideal," as someone has so aptly ex-
pressed it.
Developed, Not Taught
Imagination not only arouses
feeling but is itself stirred by in-
tense emotion or passion, and must
be allowed to follow its own course,
to come spontaneously, not by any
direction, for it cannot be taught.
The teacher cannot instruct the
pupil
how
to imagine, only how to
develop
the imagination. In order
to accomplish this the individual
must first have a store of material,
such as ideals, images, or apper-
ceptions, on which to build. Mem-
ory, too, may serve as a foundation,
as a stimulant by recalling past
experiences that have played on the
emotions, but it must not be mis-
taken for imagination itself.
Inherently keen imaginations are
not common to all people. Those
who lack this quality should strive
to develop it through association
with nature or in some of the ways
previously mentioned. Some chil-
dren who give early evidence of
alert imaginations by having imag-
inary playmates show creative
ability in their mature years.
Degrees of Imagination
As in many other things, there
are different degrees of imagina-
tion: the beautiful, the poetic, and
the sublime. These degrees are of
practically the same importance in
speech, art, and music. Often the
simplest subject, theme, or motif
may contain beauty. For example,
a musical theme of only a few notes
can be developed into a work of
real creative art through skillful ar-
rangement by a trained musician.
Add to this the feeling introduced
by means of interest, insight, and
imaginative interpretation by an
accomplished artist and the result
can be inspirational, possibly even
breath-takingly beautiful.
Of all of the arts in the broad
field of the uses of the imagination,
music probably ranks the highest
since it requires a skilled ear in
order to receive the most complete
picture or interpretation. In other
words, it is more dependent on
imagination or feeling to convey
the thought than are the others,
although an exception might be
present-day painting, which re-
quires much imagination. Meaning
is more graphically or concretely
conveyed in the other arts than in
music, the interpretation of which
depends solely on the ear and the
appeal to the heart. Some compos-
ers have written music to which
they have given the title, "Song
Without Words"; on the other
band, poets sometimes write words
that sing themselves into the heart
of a composer so that the music
practically writes itself.
A final similarity in the use of
the imagination in all of the arts is
that in each case not everything is
expressed. As Michelangelo has
said, "Beauty may be felt. It may
be produced. But it cannot be de-
fined." Emerson sums up the matter
with "Nothing so marks a man as
imaginative expressions. A figura-
tive statement arrests attention."

 
The Roles of Men and Women Educators
'United We
Stand'
Catherine
Waterville
IN
AN ARTICLE
entitled "Educators
Stumble in Search of Issues" in
The Washington Post
on February
19, 1966, Gerald Grant discussed
the meeting of the American Asso-
ciation of School Administrators.
The educators, he said, were sub-
dued and bewildered because of
the passage of the legislation on
civil rights and federal aid to edu-
cation, and he described the climate
of the meeting as being "radically
altered." One educator he quoted
as saying that one of the reports
read at the meeting came five years
too late. And, he reported, "some
[of the educators] complained bit-
terly about the blizzard of paper-
work" that the changes had caused
as well as of "threats of federal
control."
Paul Briggs, the "able" super-
intendent of the Cleveland schools,
Mr. Grant wrote, took a different
attitude from many and was en-
thusiastic in believing that "federal
aid is one of the key factors in turn-
ing the tide of quality education in
the big cities." I-Ie completed his
story with: "Most superintendents
. . . were neither bitter . . . nor
optimistic . . . only dazed."
Even one such report should
cause concern among professional
educators, but too many others are
heard. Let us examine the history
of tbe development of the teaching
staffs in the United States. It may
lead to some understanding of
Dr. Nutterville, a past international president
of Delta Kappa Gamma, is working for VISTA
(Volunteers in Service to America).

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
21
why professional educators are not
showing noteworthy leadership in
this time of crisis.
Why "Dazed" Report?
Since it is unlikely that all 30,000
educators at Atlantic City were
"dazed," why then was there a
possibility of such an evaluation
by a journalist? If there is no foun-
dation for it, professional leaders
should be first to act. If it is true,
they should be first to come out of
the so-called daze.
The number of women present
at the administrators' convention
would be interesting to know. If
strong leadership in the profession
is as lacking as Gerald Grant sug-
gests, then it would seem feasible
that some strong female leadership
might attempt to determine the
facts behind his charges. Since this
paper is being developed to try to
assess the roles of men and women
in education, a brief review of the
history of the development of wom-
en teachers in our nation will be
undertaken.
Roles of Women Educators
For a long time there has been a
preponderance of women teachers
in the American schools. The male
teacher in the early elementary
school was considered an Ichabod
Crane who had neither ability nor
liking for manly activities. He was
willing to "board around" at the
homes of his students, accepting his
food and lodging as part payment
for his services in teaching the chil-
dren of the community to read and
write. He was actually less than a
man and permitted his tormentors
to "ride away with the beautiful
maiden" without protest. The male
teacher vanished early from the
traditional country schools to be
supplanted by a young woman
who could read and write and was
able to get a "teachers' certificate."
As the country grew and towns
became cities, the demands for edu-
cators spread. It was recognized
that a free people must be a literate
people. Such men as Horace Mann
planned and developed "school sys-
tems." Their greatest innovation
was the idea of organizing classes
for children according to age levels.
The expediency of this practice un-
questionably improved school or-
ganization and school methods as
well as their results. Much of the
success of these schools should be
generously credited to the women
teachers who joined the ranks of
these leading educators and dedi-
cated their skills and efforts to im-
proving the American urban school
systems.
In the rural schools during this
same time and for a long time after-
ward, even to our own day, chil-
dren from six to sixteen years of
age or older were banded together
under one teacher. There would be
from four or five to twenty children
in the elementary grades. The
teacher was "supervised" and "ad-
ministered" by no one but the local
school board, the chairman of
which often was chosen because he

 
22
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
could read and write. Since the
county superintendent resided at
the county seat, visits to the schools
were limited by the condition of
the roads. Professional training for
both rural and urban teacbers was
to come years later.
The little red school house in the
country was a reality as was the big
red brick school in the city or town.
Whoever the administrators were—
usually men with some higher edu-
cation—the classrooms were almost
universally ruled over by women
and they were largely responsible
for whatever sort of schools there
were. The results on the whole
were good. Illiteracy was reduced.
Most Elementary Teachers Women
The Horace Manns, the Roose-
velts, the Jolm Deweys, the Eisen-
howers, the Tafts, and others right
down to the present-day Johnsons,
Dirksens, Mansfields, astronauts,
and generals, and all the thousands
of citizens received the major por-
tion of their elementary education
from women teachers. With the
increasing need for teachers, more
and more women joined the ranks;
but increases in teachers' pay failed
to keep pace with the demand for
their services. At this point men
disappeared largely from competi-
tion with women in this poorly paid
field. They argued that a man could
not raise a family on the meager
salary of a teacher. School men
remained in the field as administra-
tors, principals, deans. Many of
them bad begun their college train-
ing in law, religion, even medicine,
and, for one reason or another, set-
tled for school administration.
School board members were us-
ually men—a situation which still
prevails in spite of the advances
made by women in various other
areas. No educational qualifications
were demanded for school board
members, and few of them had bad
much formal education. Because
the jobs of superintendents and
principals were usually reserved for
men also, the policies of the schools
were usually developed by men
even when able women with su-
perior training were on the staffs.
Typical teachers were young
women just out of high school and
later just out of college. By her
middle twenties a teacher would
normally marry after a few years of
teaching, making room for another
younger teacher who also saw the
job as a stop-gap between school
and marriage.
Pioneering Women Educators
As always, however, there was
no universal pattern and some
teachers did not marry and leave
teaching but continued in the class-
rooms for years. Among these were
the women who pioneered in the
professionalization of teaching.
Early they clamored at the doors
of normal schools, colleges, and
universities, wanting two things:
freedom from the everlasting com-
pionship of children during the
summer school months, and the in-
tellectual stimulation given them
by educators in whose classes tbey
enrolled. They believed that the

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
23
basic structure of the nation would
be strengthened only as the boys
and girls in their classrooms were
to become the educated men and
women of their tomorrows. It was
early in this century that teachers
asked for admission to summer
school classes, but they were either
too dedicated or too naive to ask
for a stipend to offset some of the
sacrifice that going to summer
school made necessary. Years later
these aids were granted but only
when continuing training was re-
quired, not requested.
Even at this late time marriage
was not accepted as commonplace
for teachers as it was in every other
facet of society. A teacher was re-
quired to resign if she married.
Often she had to pledge that she
would not marry for the duration
of her contract. A widow, who had
taught for a district before her mar-
riage, might be allowed to apply
for a position after her husband's
death, but this was not considered
reinstatement and she was expected
to start again at beginners' salary.
War and Married Women
Not until World War II were
married women recruited to fill the
vacancies of those who left the
schools to go into the armed forces
or to work in war industries. Rosie
the Riveter was often better paid
than were elementary school teach-
ers. The schools stayed open, but
the bottom of the barrel was well-
scraped and quality teachers were
hard to get. At the end of tbe war,
salaries had climbed slightly; but it
has taken until this decade to hear
of anyone except teachers who had
discovered that teachers were poor-
ly paid.
During the war years women
teachers, farmers' wives, business
women were caring for children. A
generation of them was born, fed,
bathed, trained, and schooled with
women playing the dominant role
in every service the youngsters re-
ceived. Little was credited to the
"maiden aunt" who was a teacher
in addition to mothering and fa-
thering the six orphaned children
of her brother, or her colleague
who taught in a room across the
hall from her and kept house for
her paralyzed father and blind
mother.
Men Teachers Return
A few men were in the schools
during the war years and then oth-
ers returned. (God bless them! How
we had prayed for their return!).
They hurried into the colleges and
universities to experience the re-
newal of spirit that education gives.
The G.I. Education Law helped
them, and many who never would
have had an education without its
benefits were able to study in the
fields they chose. They were a ma-
ture lot of men. In a few years they
were seeking jobs and many of
them chose teaching. Here again
an anomaly occurred. The returned
G.I. bad a 10 per cent placement
preference assured him when he
was seeking employment. The
women who had kept the schools

 
24
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
going until "the boys came march-
ing home" had no such preference
and were more or less "frozen" into
their old positions, with faint hope
of advancement.
An advantage to the schools—
particularly to the students—was
that at last men were again in the
schools, thus relieving the disad-
vantages that were said to result
from "this matriarchal school so-
ciety." Their numbers increased
and they rapidly advanced upward
to become principals, deans, and
superintendents. Some of them may
even have been among the "dazed"
administrators on whom Mr. Grant
reported at Atlantic City.
Many women had attained ad-
ministrative positions during World
War II and usually retained them
until retirement. When they re-
tired, though, their places were
largely filled by men.
The fact that many women
teachers do not want and would
not accept positions in administra-
tion must not be overlooked. They
shy away from the pressures, ten-
sions, and responsibilities of ad-
ministration, and are happy to work
out their careers in their class-
rooms, where—many of them tell
you—there is never a dull moment.
This should in no way, however,
make it difficult for other women,
able and willing, to receive ap-
pointments as administrative jobs
occur. Often these places are filled
by young men who need a ten-year
apprenticeship to learn how to run
a good school.
Why
the Imbalance?
What has caused the imbalance,
leaving women predominantly in
the elementary classrooms? The
answers are numerous, but prima-
rily low salaries and lack of com-
petition by men left the pattern
well printed on society until World
War II. Other revolutionary social
changes, like the battle for women's
rights, had some bearing. The rapid
settlement of the West left this
pattern, and many others, to be
changed as a readiness developed.
With vastly improved counseling
at college level, much of the risk
involved in either man or woman
becoming a teacher can be—and to
some extent has been—eliminated.
A trained woman teacher is now
free to marry without jeopardizing
her career. There is plenty of room
for men in both elementary and
secondary schools, and there should
be only wholesome and realistic
competition for these jobs.
Administration should be looked
upon as open country, with a wom-
an venturing into certain jobs if she
is qualified. With our culture being
what it is, most administrative jobs
will still be held by men, often
working with women who recall
that in wartime they had to take
over responsibilities that they
would never have competed for
willingly.
Credit Due Schools
The frank appraisal of adminis-
trators written by Gerald Grant is
probably only a straw in the wind

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
25
showing the direction that the ap-
praisal of school personnel has
taken for longer than professionals
are prepared to admit The prob-
lem arises that in this time of crisis
when poverty is recognized for its
invidious damage to our nation, the
schools, which have more responsi-
bility to children than any other
institution outside the home, have
been looked upon with a jaundiced
eye and their administrators have
been charged with being in a daze.
If we recognize that 80 per cent
of the people of the United States
enjoy a standard of living never
before possible for any people,
there must be some credit due to
the American school system. Most
of the 20 per cent that comprise
the so-called hard-core of poverty
are recognized as having suffered
from (1) segregation, (2) crowded
city slums and ghettos, and (3) neg-
lect of Indians forced to live on
poor nonproductive reservations.
While Mr. Grant's article puts
all American education on the de-
fensive, much can be said in reply.
There are valid reasons that could
be stated as to why these adminis-
trators were caught short without
an issue. Many were probably un-
duly influenced by the conservative
battle cry against federal aid. They
feared loss of "local control" of the
schools. They pleaded that the
school could not afford innovations
(ex.: special education). They rea-
soned honestly even if they were
also too timid. Their reasoning
failed. Federal aid to education is
the law of the land.
Men like Paul Briggs, of Cleve-
land, are raising their sights and
"turning the tide of quality educa-
tion in the big cities." The big
cities may feel the impact first; but
if administrators, school board
members, and teachers demonstrate
that the "daze" is not chronic, edu-
cation can make decisive inroads
for the betterment of that hard-core
20 per cent of the population at
poverty level. The monies are avail-
able and will reach the local level
when local professionals—superin-
tendents, teachers, lawyers, public
health workers—will join in using
this financial assistance creatively
to meet the needs "of the least of
these, My children."
Poverty in this nation has done
irreparable damage to our social
structure. Now is the time for the
schools—the schools that are closer
to children than any other institu-
tion besides the home—to join "in
turning the tide of quality educa-
tion."
We Stand United
Where does this leave the "battle
of the sexes" among school person-
nel? Why, of course, men and wom-
en will continue to work together,
remembering that the problems
cannot be solved by either men or
women working alone. The skills,
the zeal, the ingenuity, the dedica-
tion, and loyalty of all are required.
Truly
In union there is strength!

 
enis Diderot
omen
Dorothy Wirtz
-M
ANY OF US,
like the French
playwright, Jean Giraudoux,
believe that the man-woman ques-
tion has remained hanging in the
air, entirely unsolved, for a long
time—in fact since the time of Adam
and Eve, Samson and Delilah, and
Antony and Cleopatra—and perhaps
always will remain so. Nevertheless,
it is amusing to keep discussing the
question, and it is with admiration
that we watch Denis Diderot, man
of letters of eighteenth-century
France, psychoanalyze the women
of his time and, as a matter of fact,
of all time. There is no need to
linger over the examples he gives
to illustrate his analyses, but it
should be explained that at the
time he wrote his little essay,
Sur
les Femmes,
in 1772, he was still in
love with Mme de Meaux.
Antoine-Leonard Thomas ( 1732-
1785 ), a member of the French
Academy and author of numerous
Eloges,
bad written a
Dissertation
sur les Femmes
and had done quite
a lot of thinking about women, but
in Diderot's opinion, Thomas bad
never really
felt
very much with
regard to them. He wrote with im-
partiality and wisdom, with erudi-
tion, reason, finesse, style, and
harmony, true; but Diderot himself
would express more interest and
warmth of emotion about women.
Thomas's book is not about
either
sex, but is hermaphroditic. There is
not enough variety or flexibility in
his work to describe the diversity
of the extremes of strength and
weakness in women, whom a mere
mouse or a spider web can cause
to faint, and yet who can sometimes
brave the greatest terrors of life. It
is especially in love, jealousy, ma-
ternal tenderness, in moments of
superstition, in their susceptibility
to popular epidemics and emotions
that women are astonishing, beauti-
ful, and terrible. They carry these
feelings to a point never seen in
men. The contrast in the violence
and the gentleness of their emotions
can make them hideous, for they
are more disfigured by their feel-
ings than are men.
Not yet emancipated in his day,
women had to ingratiate themselves
with men, continues Diderot, and
never experienced the supreme
voluptousness that men did, even
if they adored a man. Impenetrable,
Dr. Wirtz is associate professor of French at
Arizona State University, Tempe.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
27
cruel in vengeance, stubborn in
their designs, unscrupulous about
means to the end, secretly and
deeply loathing the despotism of
men, they seemed to be plotting,
leaguing together for domination.
Good at Pretense
They are like Racine's Roxane
( of
Baiazet)
if you cross them in
their ambition, Diderot believes.
They are naturally curious, but hate
it when one guesses their secret
motives. They are good actresses
at pretending to love a man when
they want to betray him. They nev-
er once forget themselves. They
have pride. There is something in
a woman's physical make-up that
can bring on a spasm on short no-
tice and excite her imagination, a
kind of delirious hysteria from her
past that she can call up at any
time.
Although hysterical in her youth,
woman becomes devoted in old age.
If she still has energy in old age,
she undoubtedly had spirit when
young. She speaks of vision, proph-
ecy, revelation; she speaks a kind
of fiery, hysterical poetry. A woman
dominated by hysteria is experienc-
ing something infernal or divine,
one or the other. She is like a
ferocious beast. She feels and ex-
presses herself like something not
mortal. Besides, it is catching. If
one woman starts something, they
all do it. Women are extraordinary
children!
Naturally, in Diderot's day wom-
en were more confined, more neg-
lected in their education than they
are today, abandoned to the ca-
prices of fate, more impressionable,
more delicate than men. Reduced to
silence as adults, uneasy about mar-
riage and motherhood, sad, worried,
melancholy, the bane of their par-
ents' existence until they turned out
good or bad, when finally released
from the despotism of parents,
young women swam about in a fu-
ture filled with chimeras. Then they
passed from one tyranny to anoth-
er. They became mothers, imperil-
ling their lives, charms, and often
health. Age came. Beauty passed.
They were abandoned, never
amused, bored. Neglected by
spouse, forgotten by children, with
no position in society, they found
their last resource in devotion.
Treated Like Children
In almost every country civil laws
were against women. They were
treated almost like imbecilic chil-
dren. Men could exercise any pow-
er against them. It was even worse
in uncivilized nations, where wom-
en would have been better off had
they died at birth than become
veritable slaves, such as the In-
dian women on the banks of the
Orenoque in South America. There,
after leading a life of slavery for
family, women were replaced by
younger women who abused them.
"Women, how I pity you!" says
Diderot. Had be been able to make
the laws, he would have freed wom-
en from all servitude and they
would have been sacred every-
where they went.
"Quand on ecrit

 
28
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
des femmes,ilfaut tremper sa plume
dans l'arc-en-ciel et jeter sur sa
ligne la poussiere des ailes du
papillon; . . .
" 1 ( This man is ob-
viously in love! ) But he tells M.
Thomas not to forget that nothing
really penetrates women very deep-
ly. Justice, virtue, vice, kindness,
spitefulness are only superficial
with them. They keep their pride
and selfish interests, all the same.
More civilized than men on the sur-
face, they are more or less true
machiavellian savages underneath.
Often where there is a wall of brass
for a man, there is only a spider web
for a woman. They have more in-
stinct than men. They are not as
modest as they appear, however.
They have only had virtue drilled
into them. They will listen to any
flatterer, they are so ignorant. No
authority has subjugated them.
They are rarely systematic, act on
the spur of the moment. They are
no more honest than men, but de-
cency does not allow them to ex-
press themselves as frankly as men
do. They simply cover up their
thoughts with delicate plumage.
Women are useful to men of let-
ters because they accustom such
men to expressing themselves on
the driest and spiniest subjects
pleasantly and clearly. Men of let-
ters nearly always address them-
selves to women ( and have since
Racine made them important in
literature ) and want to be listened
'-"When one writes of women, one must dip
one's pen in the rainbow, and throw on Ins
the dust of the butterfly's win;
,
.,"
Oeuvres
de Diderot,
"Sur les Femmes, Bthhoth6que de
la Pleiade, 1951, p. 986.
to by them. They are afraid of tir-
ing or boring them. Thus, they take
on a particular kind of facility in
expressing themselves which pass-
es from their conversation into their
style.
However, when women do have
genius, Diderot believes their stamp
to be more original than that of
men ( witness one of his contem-
poraries, Mme de Stael).
Today's Woman
Now that women have had the
opportunity in the 192 years since
this essay was written to discover
for themselves their strengths and
weaknesses, now that their educa-
tion is no longer neglected, now
that their longevity surpasses man's,
and now that they are less impres-
sionable and can almost create their
fate rather than remain victims of
it, would Diderot pity them? ( Be-
ing a gentleman, he would probably
not retract; he might rather wish
now to write an essay
Stir les
Hommes.)
In any case, it was the feminine
type of woman Diderot was talking
about. If he could be interviewed
today on the subject of women, it is
probable he would advise ( par-
ticularly those who have genius )
among other things:
To curb emotional for more rea-
sonable approaches to wisdom,
To guard against becoming a
masculine type of woman in achiev-
ing equality with men,
To remain what God intended
women to be, if they wish to put
their original stamp on humanity.

 
The Historian's —ask
Clarice T. Campbell
r
rHE HISTORIAN
'S
task, reduced to
its simplest terms, is to relate
man to his past that he may better
understand his present.
The term
historian
in this discus-
sion will include all who perform as
a profession some part of this task.
Some historians may concentrate
more heavily on discovering the
past, others on interpreting the facts
discovered, and still others on trans-
mitting the facts together with their
interpretations to the younger gen-
eration. All of these have a part in
the overall assignment of relating
man to his past that he may better
understand his present.
Man has always been interested
in what happened to other men be-
fore him. This interest has found
expression in legends, ballads, and
stories at first passed on by word
of mouth to each succeeding gen-
eration. All this was a kind of early
history but by modern standards
would not be acceptable as history.
Bloch says:
• . .
having grown old in embryo as mere
narrative, for long encumbered with
legend, and for still longer preoccupied
with only the most obvious events,
[history] is still young as a rational at-
tempt at analysis.'
It is this "rational attempt at analy-
sis" we deem important today if
history is to enable man to better
understand the world in which he
finds himself.
Knowledge of Facts
The
sine qua non
of rational
analysis is always a knowledge of
the facts. Through critical methods
of research patterned as nearly as
possible after those used in the
physical sciences, the historians of
the latter 1800's and early 1900's
gathered evidence, checked it for
accuracy, lined it up chronological-
ly, and recorded it. Historians of
this scientific school dug up many
elusive facts with the sole object of
,
Marc Bloch,
The Historian's
Craft, trans.
Peter Putnam. A Caravelle Ed. (New York:
Random House, c. 1953), p. 13.
Mrs. Campbell, until recently assistant professor
of history at Tougaloo College, is completing an
M.A. in history at the University of Mississippi.

 
30
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
accurately relating what happened.
2
Never before was so much reliable
knowledge of human experience at
the disposal of society.
History, however, was read by
fewer people than before and "lying
inert, unread in books, was of no
use."
3
But assuming it had been
diligently read, the marshaling of
facts, one after another, made it
difficult to derive any meaning for
contemporary problems. The facts,
in and of themselves, offered few
clues to human behavior which men
might have drawn upon to avert
the tragedy of World War I. Per-
haps the historians cannot be held
to account for that holocaust, but
it cannot be said they did anything
to prevent it.4
Some historians felt less than sat-
isfied with this scientific history.
Friedrick Meinecke, at tbe end of
his life, transferred his allegiance
from Leopold von Ranke, one of
the founders of the scientific school,
to Jacob Burkhardt of the "New
School," saying "continuity is by
no means the most conspicuous fea-
ture of history." 5
And it is not bard
to detect a wistful longing in the
words of H. A. L. Fisher written
after he finished his
History of
Europe:
2
Charlotte Watkins Smith, Carl
Becker: On
History and the Climate of Opinion (
Ithaca,
New York: Cornell University Press, 1956), p.
68; David Potter, "Explicit Data and Implicit
Assumptions," in
Generalization
in
the Writing
of History,
ed. Louis Reichenthal Gottschalk
( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963),
p. 178.
,
Smith, op.
cit.,
p. 82.
.,
Smith, op.
cit.,
p. 75; James Harvey Robin-
son, "Newer Ways of Historians,"
American
Historical Review,
XXXV (January, 1930),
p. 252.
5Geoffrey Barraclough,
History in
a
Changing
World (
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1951), p. 4.
Men wiser and more learned than I have
discovered in history a plot, a rhythm, a
predetermined pattern. These harmonies
are concealed from me. I can see only
one emergency following upon another.6
Fisher, like the most of the scien-
tific historians who felt the facts
must be allowed to speak for them-
selves, would not even hazard a
hypothesis or general truth based
on his facts which might have
helped man to understand his pres-
ent.
These historians, however, did
not always consider themselves as
withdrawn from social responsibili-
ties. Frederick J. Teggert felt that
if the facts were collected more
scientifically, they would speak
more accurately.
7
Insofar as he
went, there is much to be said for
his position. Admittedly, unless the
facts are correctly given, no inter-
pretation or lessons derived can be
reliable. It is, then, to these scien-
tific historians that we are indebted
for more accurate information.
Though scientific history has almost
passed from the scene, it still "casts
a long shadow" shaping what we
call the historical method of re-
search.
8
Interpretation of Facts
Today the historian would not
consider his task complete with
merely having done a
creditable
research, though such research
might fulfill his obligation to relate
man to his past. After World War
I
'Ibid.,
pp. 222-3.
'Smith, op.
cit.,
p. 68.
'Totter,
op. cit.,
p. 178.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
31
historians entered an era in which
they would increasingly use his-
torical facts in an attempt to en-
lighten man on his present. Even
the making of moral judgments was
again made respectable when such
outstanding historians as David J.
Hill and Henry Osborn Taylor ad-
vocated "bringing historical fact to
the test of some conception of
moral quality—the good historian
must judge between good and
bad."9
This new role of the historian
required interpretation of the facts.
Actually interpretation was never
absent from the historian's work.
Even H. A. L. Fisher interpreted
history as "one emergency follow-
ing upon another." Also, the mere
selection of facts to use in
a
book
or lecture (obviously not all facts
could be included) was in effect
saying the facts included were of
greater importance than the ones
omitted. 10
This was a form of in-
terpretation. But now interpreta-
tion, even judgment, was to come
out of tbe "underground"—was to
be done openly and unabashedly.
Many historians still shy away
from interpretation, as it is always
done at risk to one's reputation. Be-
fore a historian even hazards a
working hypothesis, he will, of
course, have a large body of facts
at his disposal. Then he will check
his guess against all the facts pos-
sible, not only from his own disci-
pline but from related disciplines to
ascertain if his hypothesis will stand
oSmith,
op. cit.,
p. 66.
p. 73.
the test. Even working with such
extreme care, Fox says, only about
one hypothesis in a hundred will
receive public acclaim and that one
is subject to becoming obsolete as
new evidence comes in or when old
evidence once overlooked is given
more weight." Thus, every history
written is an unfinished story, and
Becker admonishes historians to
work constantly to "correct and am-
plify the history that is living and
working in the world—the history
Mr. Everyman carries in his mem-
ory."1
Erroneous interpretations carried
in the memory of Mr. Everyman
have often been the basis for some
unfortunate policies. The idea of
white supremacy has received sus-
tenance for the past century from
the early histories of the Recon-
struction and the Bourbon periods
beginning with William A. Dun-
ning and John W. Burgess. With
more facts and with previously
overlooked facts, with the aid of
other disciplines, such as sociology,
psychology, anthropology, and eco-
nomics which have matured more
recently, such revisionists as Ken-
neth Starnpp and C. Vann Wood-
ward have been busy correcting the
earlier interpretations.
In another area, the Byzantines
and Eastern Europe were ignored
in the past because their relevance
was not immediately apparent. Con-
centrating on Western Europe, we
came to believe in the superiority
11Dixon
Ryan Fox, "A Synthetic Principle for
American History,"
American Historical Review,
XXXV ( January, 1930), p. 259.
,2Smith,
op.
cit.,
p. 82.

 
32
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
of Western civilization.
13
Toynbee
attempted to "correct and amplify"
this belief by pointing out that
Western culture has drawn not only
from Eastern Europe but also from
China, India, and Islam."
Interpretations are not only sub-
ject to the development of new
facts but are always influenced by
the biases, prejudices, and needs
of the individual—all of which de-
pend largely on the age in which
the historian lives. A "change in
climate," to use Becker's phrase,
will outmode a formerly accepted
theory, for we always tend to in-
terpret the past by the present.15
Beard's economic interpretation of
the Constitution made sense to an
age which saw business as the
dominant factor in the culture. But
a generation breathing Woodrow
Wilson's idealism turned to H. G.
Wells's more optimistic theory of
the world's steadily growing better.
This was later superseded in a
period of disillusionment by Toyn-
bee's parallel between our Western
civilization today and past civiliza-
tions as they approached collapse.
To this Barraclough has answered
with the theory of the rhythm of
civilizations. Just as the individual
is born to die, so civilizations rise
to fall, but some part of each al-
ways carries over to the next and
so no civilization
is
really lost.'
6
The historian must attempt "to
find and convey some meaning in
,-3
Barraclough, op.
cit.,
p. 25.
p. 26.
,5
Smith, op.
cit.,
pp. 85, 86, 97.
16
Barraclough,
op. cit.,
pp. 232-8.
human experience."
17
He will nev-
er find it if he refuses to look for it
or if he refuses to commit himself
lest the next generation discredit
him. If he waits for the facts to
speak for themselves, as the scien-
tific historians tried to do, "he will
wait forever."
8
Transmittal of Understanding
We have been discussing two
facets of the historian's task—re-
search and interpretation. Perhaps
the most exhilarating facet of his
task, however, is the transmittal of
historical understanding to the on-
coming generations. Here the his-
torian comes down from his ivory
tower into the market place. Now
he is using research and interpre-
tation to prepare young people to
do battle for the cause of civiliza-
tion. Very largely what these future
secretaries of state, editors, and
other leaders will do will depend
on tbe values they learn in school.
Since the dawn of civilization,
mankind's problem has been to
learn to live together in societies.19
Many advances have been made
along the way. It is the historian's
task to be sure each generation un-
derstands why men struggled and
died for these victories. Only re-
cently we were caught short in
transmitting to youth an under-
standing of the long struggle to
obtain the liberties now written into
our Constitution as the Bill of
Rights. Our men in Korea often
17
Smith,
op. cit.,
p. 81.
,8lbid.,
p. 81.
"Barraclough,
op. cit.,
p. 226.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
33
did not know the difference be-
tween a society that honors indi-
vidual rights and one that does not;
they, therefore, did not know for
what they were fighting.
Researchers further startled an
already alarmed public with their
discovery that most Parent-Teachers
Association members and most
school board members could not
pass a simple test on the Bill of
Rights. Supreme Court Justice Wil-
liam 0. Douglas has said:
One has only to read the press to see
how little editors know [of the Bill of
Rights]. They sound an alarm when a
non-conformist is found on a campus;
they administer a sedative when a crime
is "solved" by use of the third degree
method or a man imprisoned for his
beliefs.29
Our society expects its historians to
preserve the gains of the past for
each new generation.
At its best, however, teaching
history is not just a matter of in-
stilling in students an appreciation
for their heritage. It can be, as
Frederick Jackson Turner expressed
it, a holding of "the lamp for con-
servative reform."
2
If, as has been stated, the prob-
lem of man is to learn to live to-
gether in societies, we must admit
there is yet much to be learned.
A. G.
Little suggests it is important
that our preparation for the future
should include the retrieving of lost
treasures—those ideas which were
considered but cast aside, perhaps
2"Isidore
Starr, "Teaching the Bill of Rights
in Our Schools," in
Middle States Council for
the Social Studies Proceedings 1964,
Vol. 60,
pp. 14-15.
2,Smith,
op.
cit.,
p. 66.
for something not as good, but
which might enrich our civilization
were they to be reconsidered.22
(Could Thaddeus Stevens' "40
acres" have been one of those trea-
sures? If so, what does such a
treasure say to us in the face of
today's problems?)
Henry Ford believed that history
as often taught was not only un-
profitable but vicious because it
exalted bloodshed and displomatic
cunning—the very things which
made it difficult for societies to live
together. 23
Stuart Chase was prob-
ably thinking along the same lines
when he said we need "agreement
shooters" ratber than "trouble
shooters." 24
If historians were to
become "agreement shooters" hold-
ing up what men have in common
instead of their differences, they
might even find some seeds of
democracy in communism which
could be nurtured. The students of
such a historian might be willing to
adopt the formula of Frederic Bas-
tiat (1801-1850) who explained why
his votes were at times in agree-
ment with those of the Socialists
and Communists by declaring " . . .
one must base his vote on for what
instead of with whom."25
One final word regarding the
transmittal of historical understand-
ing: The historian is duty bound
to write and speak as clearly and
interestingly as is within his power.
22Barraclough,
op. cit.,
p. 6.
23Fax,
op.
cit.,
p. 257.
24Stuart
Chase, "Roads to Agreement," in
Middle States Council fov the Social Studies
Proceedings 1951-1959,
Vol. 49-56. P. 9 (of
Vol. 49).
2 Starr,
op. cit.,
pp. 2, 8, 9.

 
34
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
The more dull his articulation, the
less he will be heard or read. The
greatest historian, if unread and
unheard, is without influence. A
dull historian before a captive audi-
ence in a classroom can be actually
injurious to the profession as well
as to his captives.
History Holds the
Key
To name a profession with a
greater task than that of the his-
torian as he labors to relate man to
his past that he may better under-
stand his present would be difficult.
Though we cannot say history holds
the key to all life's problems, there
is good reason for believing it holds
the key for many problems pertain-
ing to living together in societies.
Attitudes of people toward each
other and ability of nations to exist
together on the same planet will
depend very largely upon the his-
torian's success in transmitting to
the public the relationships and
meanings derived from the histori-
cal facts at his disposal. Though he
is certain to make mistakes along
the way, the historian who knows
the facts better than anyone else is
obligated to
try
to make them of
benefit to mankind.
2
6
2,Barracjough,
op. cit.,
p. 25.
Creativity
ETHEL MILLER
Some folks are creative in art;
With others a verse says it better;
And then there are those
Whose creativity shows
When they sit down to write you a letter.
Some create beautiful music;
While others interpret a song;
Some change a hymn
To contortions of limb,
And some play it all with a bong!
Some are creative in cooking;
While others express it in dress;
Some have a flair
For stacking their hair;
This, too, is creative, I guess.
Some like to tinker in workshops,
In metals or woodwork or glue;
Or mold something nice
From a block of pure ice,
And then add a colorful hue.
To each this expresses her feelings,
But to each in a different way;
God gives to each one
A way to have fun,
In work, as well as in play.

 
An Educator's View .
COMMUNiSM
versus
the
American Dream
Lois
Bissett
A:
PRESENT, there is much talk,
thought, anxiety, and even dread
of the theory and practice of com-
munism and its indoctrination and
spread into the minds and actions
of the many nations and peoples of
the world. Basically, there is a
growing fear and awareness of an
existing and impending struggle,
either physical, spiritual, or both,
between the ideals of democracy
and communism. Should not this
conifict of ideals be recognized in
its strength and reality, and fought
with the most effective and power-
ful weapons available?
Recently, in a public place, there
came to the author's attention a
publication of the Soviet Union
entitled U.S.S.R., a cultural ex-
change with the United States for
the magazine
Amerika,
which is
printed in Russian and distributed
in that nation. With curiosity the
pages of U.S.S.R. were searched
for an idea of the spirit of another
people. What do they consider im-
portant? What would they publish
to show Americans the Soviet the-
ory? What understanding was to be
found within this propaganda or-
gan?
Again and again, underlying all
of the articles was a
dream—a
dream
of liberty, spiritual growth, and
individualism. One feature included
pictures of Soviet youth with seri-
ous plans and ideals for the future
in fields of teaching, science, and
other occupations. Another page in-
telligently discussed the Russian
writer Chekbov and told of his fight
in literature against the pattern,
mold, and stagnation of material-
ism, and of his longing for spiritual
freedom and intellectual advance.
A third selection envisioned the
day when laborers would have a
shorter working week, more time
for cultural growth and spiritual
development, and (back to the ma-
terial) air-conditioned, noiseless
factories which would be cool and
fragrant as "the pine forests."
Strength of a Dream
What hardships and privations a
people will endure on the strength
of a dream! Was not our own coun-
try built in this way? Herein, I
Mrs. Bissett has taught nineteen yeors in the
public schools of Texas, five years in special
adult education classes, and three years with
illiterates.

 
36
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
believe, is the strength of com-
munism and the power, and also the
weakness, of democracy. The weak-
ness is the loss of the American
Dream amid self-satisfaction and
self-righteousness of a materially
successful society. Things become
more important than people. Val-
ues shift to the basis of how much
one has, rather than what one is.
We fail to cherish the individual-
istic in our groups and to encourage
the growth of the unique person-
ality. In many areas of training
and social practices we stress the
mold of the "average," the "herd-
instinct," and the rule of the power
personality or group. We fear the
different and the unusual and cling
blindly to the social and cultural
patterns of a certain class or area.
Often, we may crush the creative
spirit within ourselves and oth-
ers, consciously or unconsciously,
through unjust treatment and harsh
criticism, by unfairness and lack of
acceptance in human relationships,
by rationalization of our actions on
the basis that they are necessary for
our own personal success and ad-
vancement, or even for protection
of the ego. Could we be building
our own esteem at the expense of
another—or by dependence upon
someone's opinion? Might not our
mistakes be excused without apol-
ogy, if we could only bring our-
selves to admit we were ever in
error?
Could we be ignoring, forgetting,
or refusing to recognize the essen-
tial power and strength within our
nation, the single weapon mighty
enough to meet communism on its
own ground and overcome it—the
power of a dream—the American
Dream of the worth and dignity of
every human spirit? This is the
reality that Soviet theorists have
recognized as the basis of the
growth of democracy and are using
to attempt to defeat us.
A Twisted Version
By
the time the dream of indi-
vidual realization has been spelled
out in the reality of communism—
such as in a recent newspaper dis-
patch saying that it is "creative to
punish (or even destroy) those who
oppose the state"—the individual or
nation who has believed tbe com-
munist version is in its power. This
great pressure-group will not hesi-
tate to annihilate any and all op-
position in its determination to have
"peace," i.e., complete control and
domination of the world.
How does an individual or a na-
tion compete or struggle with
a
dream, a dream taken from the very
roots of democracy and grafted to
a branch of government which in
action opposes all that the dream
embodies? The answer lies only
within each individual personality,
for each person's need or response
will be different and unique, some-
thing only he can recognize, formu-
late, cherish, and perform.
To begin personal thought and
action, one may consider several
areas. What is important? What are
the things which should be fore-
most in private life, community
society, and national policies? In

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
37
all these areas, bow does one show
respect for each personality and
recognize the dignity of every hu-
man spirit? Here is the vulnerable
point of the Soviet theory and our
great test.
From Dream to Reality
Countless thinkers of this and
past generations and cultures have
expressed the essence of the pri-
mary truth. Basically, the Great
Teacher gives it as a two-fold ideal:
Love the Creator with the whole
personality and, like unto this, love
the created. This verity is so simple
that a child can understand it, so
real that it can change the world
and overcome any opposing the-
ories, so satisfying that it is worthy
of a lifetime of daily devotion and
practice, so difficult that it takes
every iota of courage and will to
freely accept it, so challenging
that it necessitates a continuous
vigil to meet its requirements.
How can this foundational ideal
be brought to bear in everyday
areas? Essentially, we must be
real—real as individuals and as a
nation. We should be what we are—
not a show, or a front, or a shadow
picture, or a mouth saying things
our lives do not demonstrate, but
the substance of what we profess—
the proof of the American Dream.
We can be real, first, in worship
by not acclaiming ourselves for our
prosperity and our goodness, but
rather praising the Divine Source
from which all blessings flow. By
recognizing personal errors and
inadequacies and the creative
strength that is ever near us for the
seeking, asking, and receiving, we
may draw on that great Source of
power and guidance, which our
forefathers trusted in founding and
building this nation. Peter Marshall
has likened the modern church
member to a person sitting in a
bathtub though dressed for deep-sea
diving. There are depths to plumb
in the vast sea of human struggles
and need, and great power avail-
able to elevate and lift with com-
passion. Do we recognize these
realities?
Secondly, we can be real in giv-
ing. We cannot toss our coin of
gold sullenly, contemptuously, or
even carelessly to a starving, beg-
ging world and expect acceptance
of either ourselves or our dream.
Have we forgotten Lowell's "Vi-
sion of Sir Launfal," whose hero
found, through loss of all material
possessions, that even a crust given
with kindness and understanding
warms and comforts?
We would be real, also, in living.
We can accept and seek to under-
stand ourselves and others, to think
about our beliefs and live them.
Would not this begin the solution
of most of the problems of tbis day
and age? On what do we base our
lives and actions? What do we
want most in the world? One think-
ing student recently mentioned the
three desires most important to
him—happiness for all peoples,
peace in the world, and the allevia-
tion of suffering. He is devoting
his life to this in beginning a study
of medicine. Youth are ready to

 
38
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
discover and prove their dreams if
the present generation can be, as
Kahlil Gibran suggests, the stable
"bow" from which the "swift arrows
of youth" advance into the future
beyond our furthermost visions.
Lastly, we can be real in educa-
tion. What are we teaching the
generation that will see the triumph
or the defeat of the democratic
ideal? What great challenges face
these youth in the areas of human
relationships, psychology, states-
manship, journalism, technology,
art, and all fields as heart-makers,
home-makers, and world-makers!
The very face our nation shows to
the world is dependent upon the
depth and perception of the jour-
nalists, photographers, and publish-
ers who portray us in magazines,
newspapers, and books; the artists
who picture us on canvas; the pro-
ducers, directors, and actors who
depict us on stage and screen. How
wonderful is the opportunity and
responsibility in these and count-
less other areas to present and
prove the American Dream!
What an excellent example a
statesman demonstrated a few
years ago when he and members
of the government showed all re-
spect, honor, and dignity to a visi-
tor from a nation differing radically
from us in governmental theory
and practice. In spite of constant
indignities, provocations, and an-
noyances, that respect to the visit-
ing national leader was not broken
even through later difficult nego-
tiations in which the former visitor
tried to shame us before the world.
Possibly, for the first time, the
Communist recognized the strength
of the American ideal and feared
its revelation to his people in the
person of such a national leader.
Nothing Shall Deter
Walt Whitman's theme that the
seed of democracy has been divine-
ly planted in every human spirit in
every land and clime throughout
all ages and time challenges us to
recognize that the victory is indeed
ours if we as individuals and a
nation will determine that nothing
shall deter us from its accomplish-
ment. We can realize afresh the
reality of the American Dream as
it is revealed in the Bible, the Dec-
laration of Independence, the Con-
stitution, the Gettysburg Address,
the Four Freedoms, the Charter
of the United Nations, and many
other writings, as well as in count-
less lives who have given and are
giving their all in devotion and
service. Then, we can recognize
that the thoughts, actions, sayings,
prayers, and dreams of each per-
son, each day, are constructing a
national character.
By faith, we can cherish the hope
that each person, in his own time,
in his own way, making his indi-
vidual contribution will build a na-
tional character so strong and real
in its understanding and respect for
the human spirit that individuals
over the world will gladly listen
and respond as we humbly say, "Ye
shall know the truth, and the truth
shall make you free."

 
•n
Literary Pilgrimage
.
wings to
mind
and spirit ...
Eleanor B. North
irlEAR TO MY HEART are those
" days of research under the no-
ble shadow of the "Spires of Ox-
ford." The Bodleian Library with
its treasure trove of priceless scrolls
and manuscripts; the fine privilege
of contact with learned and great
minds; the inspiring reaches of the
ancient ivy-clad towers to which
age, tbe weather, and the endless
procession of wisdom have added
something that is not within the
ken of tbe architect—an atmosphere
of dignity that is at the same time
mellow and friendly—all these give
wings to mind and spirit.
Ruskin, Newman, Addison, Mat-
thew Arnold, Wycliffe, Wesley—a
long procession of noble souls. Such
heritage has hallowed the very
ground beneath our feet " . . . being
dead, yet speaking."
What an impressive experience it
is to wander through High Street—
the "noblest street in all the world,"
as Hawthorne phrased it—in the
twilight and to hear the bell in Tom
Tower boom out its one hundred
and one strokes at nine o'clock. It
is interesting to see the Shelley
Theater, the Memorial with its pa-
thetic marble figure of the drowned
young poet at Oriel College, from
which Shelley was expelled, and the
college wherein Matthew Arnold
and his dear companion, Arthur
Hugh Clough, held fellowship. But
it is a satisfaction to the soul to
visit Keble College in which hangs
Holman Hunt's famed "The Light
Miss North has been doing research abrood
since she retired in June, 1963, from her posi-
tion as professor of Shakespeare and English
literature at Berry College, Georgia.

 
40
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
of the World." To me this painting
seems the embodiment of Bishop
Latimer's cry as the cruel flames
leaped up about him on that long
ago clay in the early history of Ox-
ford University: "We this day light
such a candle by God's grace in
England as I trust shall never be
extinguished." The Latin words for
"God, my light" upon the Oxford
Varsity Shield have been kept
alive in the hearts of English youth
who swarm the streets of Oxford
today. As I looked into their earnest
faces at a student conference, a part
of the Oxford Movement of today,
I felt the breath of Latimer's candle
flame.
Happy fortune included in my re-
search a brief sojourn at Stratford-
upon-Avon in attendance at the
Shakespeare Memorial Drama Fes-
tival. We—my little band of student
"pilgrims," having completed their
six weeks of residence in French
homes near the Sorbonne, accom-
panied me on this visit—found de-
lightful hospitality in the little town
which gave William Shakespeare
birth. We were entertained at tea
on the terrace of the beautiful Me-
morial Theater, overlooking the
charming Avon River on which the
white swans float double, swan and
shadow, and were given seats in
the dress circle for a most pleasing
presentation of "As You Like It."
An interesting building this Me-
morial Theater for, although its
architecture is decidedly unStrat-
ford-like, it seems to have accepted
the age in which it was born. The
structure is both modernistic and
classic, with the interior a modern
variation of an old theme. A noble
marble staircase, a cunningly con-
trived fountain with a basin lined
with vitreous mosaics and holding
a jet carved from a hexagonal block
of Verdi de Prata marble, concealed
lighting—all these combine to give
charm to the eye of the beholder.
The stage is a marvel of modern
times, with two rolling stages which
make it possible to change a scene
in twenty-five seconds and splendid
curtains of red, black, and gold
in the modernistic manner. The
cost of the theater is estimated at
£177,000, a large part of which
came from America—from you, if
you are a member of the Shake-
speare Association.
Most interesting are Eric Ken-
nington's carvings on tbe facade.
The subjects are the emotions in
Shakespeare's plays — Treachery,
Martial Ardour, Love, Jollity, and
Life Triumphing over Death in the
center. The spirit of these carvings,
and to some extent their technical
character, are like the spirit and
technique of the Calendar carvings
on Chartres Cathedral, every inch of
which Kennington knows by heart.
My little band of youthful pil-
grims visited the birthplace of
Shakespeare, the old grammar
school where he learned "little Lat-
in and less Greek," and beautiful
Trinity Church, where he sleeps
away the long hours. They strolled
in tbe cool of the evening to the
quaint thatched cottage toward
which the immortal Will himself

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
41
often turned his eager young foot-
steps, treading the same winding
path across the fields to Ann as he
did when he came a-wooing. They
rubbed coppers over the old "court-
ing settle" on which the long ago
lovers sat through the long winter
evenings, dreaming of the sweet
days to be. They begged fragrant
sprays of sweet lavender from the
dew-drenched garden, gay with
hollyhocks, phlox, mignonette, and
other old-fashioned flowers, whose
prim beds still remain faithful to
the long-vanished hand of its mis-
tress.
One of those rarely perfect after-
noons which at times one does
experience in this oftentimes mun-
dane world was ours one golden
day at Boars Hill. This tiny hamlet,
which lies some seventeen miles
over the hill from Oxford, that
sweet city of the dreaming spires,"
as Matthew Arnold phrased it,
made us realize more fully the
peace and restfulness that are
among the priceless charms of the
English countryside.
Here in his simple country home,
far from the confusion of London
town, lived for some years John
Masefield, the modest wearer of
England's laurel wreath—so gra-
cious to my young American stu-
dent pilgrims. I shall ever cherish
the memory of that late summer
afternoon with the golden rays of
the sun falling aslant the high-
walled garden with its beds of phlox
and asters, and tbe silvery gravel
walks bordered by happy rows of
blooming roses, and turning the
great brass knocker on the white-
painted door to Midas metal. Mase-
field's blue eyes are to me the eyes
of his "Dauber." ( Do you know
that splendid poem? If you do not
know it, do read it before you are
one day older—life is so uncertain.
Perhaps all noble souls, whether or
not sea-faring men, have that quali-
ty of seeing life ". . . steadily and
whole." A golden afternoon, indeed.
Our motor also made possible a
twilight hour beneath the ancient
yew trees in the old, old church-
yard of Stoke Poges where Gray's
"Elegy in a Country Churchyard"
was written. As we stood watching
the last rays of the lingering sun,
a haycart jogged slowly down the
road, passing the east gate. One of
the students suggested that the hud-
dled figure of the weary farmer
atop the fragrant load was for us
our "plowman homeward plodding
his weary way."
We spent a wistfully lovely late
afternoon "on the bonnie, bonnie
banks of Loch Lomond"—and a
cherished morning, watching the
sunrise among the justly famous
lakes of Killarney, where we de-
lighted our Irish friends by making
wishes and otherwise carrying out
the commands of the Little People.
And, of course, during our hilarious
visit to Blarney Castle my pil-
grims, one and all, fondly kissed
the Blarney Stone—not that their
tongues needed stimulus.
Hours in London were memor-
able — at the Tower, where the

 
42
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
imposing, black-helmeted, scarlet-
coated Guards who protect the
Royal Jewels delighted my students
by calling out in solemn tones,
"Hurry along slowly, please"—a ser-
vice at St. Paul's under the shadow
of the golden dome, where we read
with reverent eyes the inscription
on the tomb of Christopher Wren,
"If
you would see my monument,
look round about you"—a service at
Westminster Abbey, where, as is
our custom, we placed tiny purple
wreaths on the last resting places of
Tennyson and Browning in Poets'
Corner and on the graves of David
Livingstone and Handel, who lie
elsewhere in the Abbey. Living-
stone's heart, you may recall, was
buried by sorrowing natives in
Africa before his body was sent
home to England.
We had tea in Hyde Park, where
we all saved a goodly portion of our
seedcake for the swans on the Ser-
pentine—saw a boat sailing among
the babies on the Round Pool at
the foot of Peter Pan's statue in Ken-
sington Gardens—floated leisurely
down the Thames to Kew, which
as Alfred Noyes sings " . . . isn't
far from London," whether it be
summer or lilac time—enjoyed an
Olde Merrie England dinner at the
Cheshire Cheese, under whose raf-
tered roof so many famous men of
letters have broken bread, and the
Elgin Marbles, Magna Carta, and
the Rosetta Stone in the British
Museum. Always there are the
street singers and flower sellers,
many, many of them this year, who,
romantic and picturesque as they
are, break my heart while they de-
light my eye.
Ghosts throng the streets of Lon-
don town, not war shades but warm
friendly folk who have put off tbe
flesh—Byron in his last bachelor
quarters at the Albany, Elizabeth
Barrett of Wimpole Street, Carlyle,
Thackeray, "dear Lady Hamilton,"
D. G. Rossetti, little Lady Jane
Grey, and that small boy working so
dolefully in the shoe-blacking base-
ment who was later to people the
streets of London with his own
creations—Charles Dickens. One
may not call them all by name, but
these genial figures seem to under-
stand and to nod that all is well.
Such wealth, literary and his-
torical, can be found in London
that a year and a day would not
suffice for the recounting thereof.
Always I take my pilgrims with
their tiny purple wreath to the
statue of Edith Cavell near Charing
Cross off Piccadilly Circus. "Pa-
triotism is not enough. I must have
in my heart no bitterness or hatred
toward anyone." We need often to
read these noble words today.
Shall we ever
forget those lovely
English teas under the trees, where
plump saucy bees pilfered our
strawberry jam ( wild strawberry
jam! ) and the birds fluttered fear-
lessly about our feet in search of
crumbs—that delightfully thin bread
and butter, known only to the Eng-
lish ( why does ours always crum-
ble? )—the fragrant tea, strong in
might—the golden mounds of seed-
cake—the good conversation and
the understanding friends. The

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
43
bluebird of happiness is not always
on the wing. What more could mor-
tal heart desire?
Only a lean, lorn fragment of
time remained when my research
was completed, but my students,
one and all, raised their voices be-
seeching that we make a flying
trip to the Continent. I fear that I
should not have been moved by
their implorings—I loathe haste—
had I not spent happy days there
the previous summer. The two pil-
grims who had motored with me at
that time added their pleas that
they wanted to view it from the
air. So fly we did.
One may go by air in five hours
from London to Rome, but the pace
required does not appeal to the
lover of that strange, fantastic,
heroic, pathetic noble thing called
human life. Our first stop was at
Amsterdam, where the students
went into ecstasies over the gaily
painted houses ( who would not like
to live in a pink house with a green
door and an orange window? ),
the quaintly dressed children, the
baggy-trousered fisherfolk, the pic-
turesque dykes and windmills. They
bought wooden shoes which they
could not wear although they made
valiant effort. And, yes, they feasted
on the famous Alkrnan bun, very
large, hot, and brown and full of
currants with an enormous pat of
butter hidden in its luscious depths.
With it one drinks a great cup of
steaming coffee ( so-called ) with
whipped cream. Ab me!
The affairs of the academic world
called me to the University of Hei-
delberg. While I was closeted in
conference with officials, my stu-
dents explored the romantic, old
castle and lent thirsty ears to the
colorful stories of German student
life which flowed in a richly-hued
stream from the lips of the keeper,
who himself might have been a
giant straight from the loved pages
of the Brothers Grimm.
Onward we winged our way to
Rome, the Eternal City, thence to
our destination, Naples. Goethe it
was who said, "See Naples and die,"
and truly there is in all the world no
water of more exquisite blue—the
deeply tender hue of soft Italian
skies. "The safe kept memory of a
lovely thing" will Naples ever be
to my enraptured students—the
plume of smoke over sleeping Vesu-
vius; the fairyland of the Blue
Grotto; the old, old city of Pompeii,
lost to the world for seventeen hun-
dred years, whose ancient past has
been uncovered before our modern
eyes.
Then home by way of Switzer-
land—Montreux on the shore of
Lake Geneva, where lake and
mountain, bay and promontory,
green slopes and heaven's blue
combine to make the most entranc-
ing views, whether seen by sun-
light, moonlight, or in storm. The
Castle of Chillon, with the very
dungeon wherein Byron's famous
prisoner languished long and weary
years, dank with mold and hoary
with time, amply fulfilled my pil-
grims' imagined conception of that
dreary place. The glory of tbe

 
44
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
Alps—mighty snow-crowned Mont
Blanc "the monarch of mountains";
the majestic splendor of the Mat-
terhorn; the brooding beauty of the
Jungfrau; St. Bernard Pass; memo-
ries of Napoleon's almost unbeliev-
able crossing of these mountains;
and Tellsplatte, reminding us of
that colorful hero of Switzerland,
William Tell; the jeweled waters
of the mountain lakes sparkling like
stars far, far below us—all these
gave new and deeper meaning to
Sara Teasdale's lines:
For beauty more than bitterness
Can make the heart to break.
Then Paris, "the woman's town
with flowers in her hair," our own
English service across the channel,
and back to Croyden and London.
As the channel appeared, a tiny sil-
ver thread far below us, one of my
pilgrims remarked with a twinkle in
his eye, "Jove, it does me good just
to think 'Roll on, nasty water, you're
nothing to me.' " (Poor dear, he
had been wretched all the way from
Dover to Calais the previous year. )
As our omnibus lumbered and
lurched toward Oxford Circus, my
thoughts turned back to our dinner
at Amalfi, served in a vine-covered
pergola of an old Capuchin Mon-
astery, perched high on the cliff
above the blue Bay of Naples—a
dinner served to the accompani-
ment of wistful love songs of old
Italy sung by a lad with one of
nature's most beautiful gifts, an un-
spoiled, song-loving voice. One
haunting refrain "Undying fire thou
dost enkindle" rang in my ears.
How I craved that the Vision and
the Dream now aglow in the young
hearts and minds of my pilgrims
might in very truth be " . . . undy-
ing fire"!
Days are lived creatively if one does not go doggedly through them
without hope. Days are lived creatively if one is open to experiences
and the possibility of insight that might make for a little more joy.
One cannot come forth with any creativity if all is hollow within.
• • . If one has received something, one has something to give.
If there is only emptiness inside, one cannot give.
DOROTHY GOLDBERG,
The Creative Woman

 
Administrative Behavior and
Organizational Climate
a St dy
Phyllis U. Coker
nr1 HE
CHALLENGE
of guarding the
I
rights of the individual, of en-
suring his development, and en-
larging his opportunity becomes
increasingly important. In a world
of sweeping societal change, the
need to keep the individual in focus
is intensified. It is exceedingly im-
portant that the organizational
climate within a school foster prog-
ress toward such a goal and that
the administrator attach maximum
importance to this objective. Other-
wise, there will be created a situa-
tion devoid of the strength of real
democratic behavior.
The organizational climate of a
school permeates every classroom
and, either positively or negatively,
influences the teaching-learning
situation therein. If the organiza-
tional structure is to be more than
a fertile field for manipulations, it
must reflect a climate conducive to
the working together of individuals
willingly, eagerly, and dependably
toward common goals. Recognition
of this factor obligates the adminis-
trator to some action in the devel-
opment of such a climate. It has
seemed reasonable to believe, or
strongly suspect, that the behavior
of the administrator is, or should
be, the crucial energizing force in
the cooperative efforts of people in
Study of Behavior and Climate
To identify some tangible rela-
tionships between administrative
behavior and organizational cli-
mate, a study was formulated. Tbe
problem centered on identification
of Correlates of Administrative Be-
havior and Organizational Climate.
It sought (1) to determine the rela-
tionship between the administrative
behavior of an elementary school
principal ( as assessed by the Ten-
nessee Rating Guide, 1961 Edition,
and the Tennessee Rating Guide:
Adjectival Checklist) and the rank-
ing of his school on overall morale;
( 2) to determine the relationship
between the organizational climate
of his school (as assessed by the
Organizational Climate Descrip-
tion Questionnaire, Form III) and
the ranking of his school on overall
morale; and (3) to determine the
relationship between the two in-
struments.
In September, 1959, a federally
supported research project entitled
Organizational Climate of Schools
was implemented by the University
of Utab's Bureau of Educational
Research under the direction of
Professor Andrew W. Halpin. Un-
der contractual arrangements of
the grant, the investigation was
aimed at developing criteria and a
Dr.
Coker is director of secondary education in
any organization.
the Chattanooga, Tennessee, public schools.

 
46
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
resultant "personality profile" scale
for evaluating an organization. The
organization was defined as a school
and the "climate" denoted sympto-
matic manifestations as perceived
by a school's administrator and
staff collectively. The market has
abounded with scales purporting
to measure the personality of indi-
viduals, but there existed a dearth
of instruments with which to assess
a school's "personality."
Collection of Data
In 1961, the Department of
Educational Administration and
Supervision of the University of
Tennessee participated in a phase
of this research. This phase includ-
ed collection of specified data from
a sample of ten elementary schools
adjudged to be of heterogeneous
characteristics relating to elements
of morale. In this instance, elements
of morale were perceived to be cer-
tain conditions and behaviors exist-
ent within a school which resulted
in a positive or negative organiza-
tional climate within the school.
Four systemwide supervisory
personnel were first asked to list
fifteen elementary schools of more
than ten teachers each, within a
local county school system, which
would represent a wide range of
differences as to staff morale. These
same four persons comprised a jury
which adjudged the selected group
of ten schools as meeting this cri-
terion for selection. The ten were
then ranked from high to low on
the basis of school morale, particu-
larly as it seemed to be reflected
within the teaching staff. The data
secured from the ten schools were
included in the final standardiza-
tion and validation steps and in-
volved the utilization of Form III
of the Organizational Climate De-
scription Questionnaire.
This instrument was of rather
novel design and format. On four
IBM mark-sense cards eighty cli-
mate descriptive items were pro-
vided; a fifth card presented five
personal biographical entries; the
sixth card was one of instructions
for the respondent. Each of the
eighty climate items described an
indicative behavior or condition
that occurs within a school organ-
ization.
A duplicate set of these locally
collected data from the sample ten
elementary schools was secured and
permission was granted by Profes-
sor Halpin of the University of
Utah to use them in a local research
project centered at the University
of Tennessee. At the time of the
initiation of this local study, the
parent study was incomplete and
no findings were available. The
major portion of the study at the
University of Tennessee was done
with only a very general knowledge
of the Utah Research Project.
Tennessee Rating Guide
Ten doctoral and seven mas-
ter's theses had used the Tennes-
see Rating Guide, either as the cen-
tral focus or as an accessory, such
as the criterion of success or failure
in studying variables pertinent to
effective school administration. The

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
47
entire series of studies with the
Guide, including its initial develop-
ment, has been one phase of a
research project initiated by the
Department of Educational Admin-
istration and Supervision of the
University of Tennessee and aimed
at improving educational leader-
ship for the Southeastern Region.
The Tennessee Rating Guide, in
its various forms, is an inventory of
behavioral characteristics used to
evaluate administrators. Implicit
within the Guide is the assumption
that such behavioral characteristics
can be identified and stated and
also that democratic leadership is
more effective than other methods.
Experiences with the Guide served
to make the possibility of a study
purporting to assess the relationship
between the organizational climate
of a school and the administrative
behavior of its principal an intrigu-
ing one. The two forms of the Ten-
nessee Rating Guide were utilized
in the same ten elementary schools
which had been selected to par-
ticipate in the project using the
Organizational Climate Question-
naire.
Procedure Used
Basic to this study is the assump-
tion that teacher morale is a func-
tion of the organizational climate
of the school. It is accepted that or-
ganizational climate and/or morale
can be defined as that prevailing
"tone" or mood which reflects the
degree of willingness and eagerness
on the part of a school staff to
work dependably and cooperatively
toward common well-defined goals.
The Organizational Climate De-
scription Questionnaire, Form III,
was administered to the 203 teach-
ing personnel of the selected
schools, including the ten princi-
pals. The utilization of these data
in this study was basically different
from the approach used in the Utah
Research Project. This difference
was in the assumption that, to some
degree, each of the items included
in the OCDQ, Form III, was a
manifestation of organizational cli-
mate and made either a positive or
negative contribution to staff mo-
rale.
Because of this difference in ap-
proach, it was necessary to devise a
different scheme for scoring the
OCDQ, Form III. The initial task
was the determination of which
climate items were positive and
which were negative in relation to
the organizational climate of the
school. This task was accomplished
by "expert" ratings. Analysis of
these ratings excluded fourteen of
the original eighty items as exerting
little, if any, influence on organ-
izational climate.
Six teachers from each of the ten
school staffs were selected to rate
the principal of the school, using
both the Tennessee Rating Guide,
1961 edition, and the Adjectival
Checklist. The selection of raters
was made through the use of a
sociometric device which implied
characteristics and abilities deemed
important in the rating task.
Detailed statistical procedures

 
48
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
were utilized in the analysis of all
the above data in light of a solution
to the initial problems set forth in
the study. There was no attempt
made to determine the relation-
ships set forth in the problems be-
yond the limits of the two instru-
ments involved.
The one major factor considered
throughout this study was staff mo-
rale as a function of the organiza-
tional climate of a school. The
Tennessee Rating Guide was never
purported to assess staff morale
per se. However, as it has been
used to evaluate effective and in-
effective administrative behavior,
it is reasonable to assume that such
evaluations have not been devoid
of morale influencing factors. The
organizational climate of a school,
one function of which is assumed
to be teacher morale, cannot be
separated from the behavior of its
administrator.
Although major consideration was
given to morale in both studies
utilizing the Organizational Climate
Description Questionnaire, the
Utah Project treated it as one of
many dimensions. In this study,
staff morale is the only function of
organizational climate which was
considered.
Results of Questionnaires
In devising a scoring scheme for
the OCDQ, Form III, the fourteen
items excluded by the expert ratings
as being non-indicative for the
study seemed difficult to categorize.
Some items were ambiguous. Other
items pertained to personal, rather
than professional, relationships
among the staff and were judged
unimportant in terms of staff mo-
rale or organizational climate. Some
items pertaining to professional re-
lationships were as follows: The
principal "runs the faculty meeting
like a business conference," "sched-
ules work for the teachers," "con-
tacts the teacher each day," "takes
the blame when parents criticize
the teachers," and "corrects the
teachers' mistakes." These items
were judged to have little influence
upon staff morale or organizational
climate.
The twenty-five climate items
considered negative seemed to im-
ply, in the main, the following:
(1) too many routine duties for
teachers, ( 2) principal dominance,
( 3) little participation by teachers
in school operation, and ( 4) teach-
ers operating in small cliques. The
forty-one positive items indicated,
for the most part, a climate of co-
operation and respect between the
teachers and the principal.
Since the Tennessee Rating Guide
had not been designed to measure
staff morale per se, an estimate of
instrument validity was computed
for the purpose of the present study
only. Correlations computed be-
tween school rankings in terms of
the ratings on each form of the
Guide and the initial rankings of
schools by supervisors on the mo-
rale criterion were significant. The
ratings of both teachers and super-
visors on both forms of the Guide
were utilized in this estimate. In

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
49
view of this fact, it is apparent that
the characteristics of educational
administrators included in tbe Ten-
nessee Rating Guide are highly
influential factors affecting staff
morale as viewed by both of these
groups. The Guide merits further
investigation in terms of its possible
contribution in the area of the as-
sessment of "staff morale."
In previous item analyses of vari-
ous forms of the Guide, the item
"Is [the administrator] an effective
or potentially effective administra-
tor?" was considered the criterion
item against which all other items
were analyzed. In this study the
total score is assumed to be a better
criterion for item analyses than the
score on any single item. However,
finding that the criterion item used
in previous analyses is the most
discriminative item in the analyses
against the total score further vali-
dates its previous use as a criterion
item.
Most Valid Items
Five items in addition to the cri-
terion item had validity coefficients
of .80 or above. These were as fol-
lows: "Is [the administrator] intel-
ligent and perceptive in problem
analysis?" Is he skillful in stimu-
lating others to achieve and share
responsibility?" "Is he trustworthy
in dealing with people?" "Is he well
informed of current affairs and
trends?" "Is he stable 'under fire,'
able to inspire others' confidence?"
Two items had validity coefficients
of .35 or below; namely, "Is he ac-
tive in community and public life?"
and "Is he friendly and sociable?"
All items included in the Guide
were significant at the .01 level of
confidence.
The relationship of school rank-
ings on both forms of the Tennessee
Rating Guide to the initial ranking
of schools by supervisors proved
highly significant. The relationship
of the school rankings on the Or-
ganizational Climate Description
Questionnaire to the initial school
rankings assumed no statistical sig-
nificance. This would imply that
while both instruments assess com-
parable factors, the Tennessee Rat-
ing Guide in this instance more
nearly measures the elements of
staff morale considered important
by supervisors and teachers.
The relationship between the
two forms of the Tennessee Rating
Guide and the sixty-six item modi-
fication of the Organizational Cli-
mate Description Questionnaire
proved significant.
Morale Valuable in Education
Education has been much slower
than industry in recognizing the
influence and value of morale, and
a much greater portion of the re-
search has been done in industry.
During the past few years, how-
ever, many vital educational prob-
lems have been attributed to poor
morale and educators have turned
to research for some possible solu-
tions. If staff morale is a major fac-
tor in the organizational climate of
a school and if the administrator's
role in this area is a crucial one,
such endeavor should be continued.

 
WHY
a Foreign Lang
age?
Anna
r
THE QUESTION SO
often asked, es-
-1-
pecially by university students,
"Why a foreign language? I shall
never have any need for it!" is
seldom properly answered.
To the child who could see no
reason for troubling his brain with
algebra and geometry the answer
was: "It teaches you to think logi-
cally!" The answer to a question
about tbe value of foreign language
cannot be so stereotyped. One can-
not claim that one gains logic by
studying a foreign language, but
there are several answers wbich
show language-study as a logical
step in the process of training the
mind and which make clear the
reasons why foreign languages are
required in many fields before the
granting of a degree.
B. Lous
Difficulties Involved
In order to attain a certain prow-
ess in the mastery of any language,
one must learn a great number
of details for correct pronuncia-
tion and the understanding of a
completely new means of communi-
cation. Each new word conveys no
mental picture whatsoever. Until
the student knows how to pro-
nounce that word, what it means,
what part of speech it is, and what
its attributes are in relation to
other completely unknown words,
be has not conquered it. All too of-
ten it is thought that learning a
Mrs. Lous teaches French and Spanish at the
University of South Dakota.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
51
few words or phrases or sentences,
parrot-fashion, is acquiring a lan-
guage. Nothing could be further
from the truth.
The speech organs have to be
used in an entirely different way
than heretofore to produce sounds
completely strange to the student.
In articulation of Spanish, for in-
stance, the vocal cords are not
used as much nor as violently as
they are used in English; and there
is hardly a sound which is equiva-
lent to an English sound. If you
have ever tried to produce new
and unfamiliar sounds, you know
how very difificult it can be and
what an enormous amount of effort
and practice it takes to become pro-
ficient.
Why
Required?
As far as personal motivation and
interests are concerned, there are,
therefore, few who have the slight-
est desire to learn a language per
se. Why, then, in some fields—
medicine for instance—should it be
obligatory to acquire a foreign lan-
guage? This mystifies many stu-
dents. The answer to this kind of
question is that in training the
mind nothing helps more than mas-
tering the intricacies of language
and its manifold ramifications to
develop a mind to function as a
reflex rather than as a painfully
slow process of thought—to speed
up mental activity from the speed
of an ox-wagon to that of a jet
plane!
Looked at purely as academic
work, language opens the mind to
a new way of thinking and con-
structing, makes the student more
world-conscious, and gives him an
awareness of a new and different
history, literature, and culture. This
can be a most broadening and valu-
able experience, for in no other
language are thoughts expressed in
just the same way as the student,
up to this time, has experienced—
his knowledge having been limited
to his own language entirely.
Understanding of Cultures
Study of another language also
gives a student the knowledge that
differences in languages reflect the
psychological differences to be
found among men of various races
and nationalities. By studying their
languages, we can come to a closer
understanding of other peoples and
cultures and develop the power to
negotiate in business, trade, the
professions, and diplomacy for the
good of all mankind. We can be-
come missionaries of democracy.
While students may never have
to use the language of their choice
for performance or material gain,
an understanding of languages oth-
er than our own is necessary for a
well-balanced way of thinking in
this complex world of ours, which
so badly needs men and women of
good will, compassion, and under-
standing. With each year our world
is shrinking as transportation and
communication become more rapid.
We all must grow in understanding
and international thinking if this
world is ever to become a better
place in which to live.

 
52
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
At the University of South
Dakota we teach all the foreign
languages which are used for simul-
taneous translations at the United
Nations: Chinese, French, Spanish,
and Russian; and also German, Let
us not short-change our future uni-
versity students. Give them some
exposure, at least two years, before
they come to the university so that
they will not have to fight a losing
battle when they get into their high-
er studies. They have so much to
study and to master in college; let
us help them as much as possible
in this difficult and unfamiliar area
of language.
The study of a foreign language
should begin in the grade school or
high school. To send a student to
the university without this exposure
to language is as distressing as it
would be to ask him to work out
some difficult problem in higher
mathematics without first teaching
him bow to add, multiply, subtract,
and divide! Too often this lack of
exposure at an early age leads a
college student to think, through
ignorance and inexperience, that
language is an easy subject. Know-
ing nothing whatsoever about what
lies
.
abead of him, he often feels he
can take it easy. By the time he
wakes up to the fact that he is
tackling a very difficult task, it is
too late. His first year's work may
be wasted and be may have to
repeat it the following year—a great
waste of time and money, as well
as a great deal of needless suffering
on his part.
For Well-Rounded Education
Just as a mind has not been prop-
erly rounded-out unless it has been
exposed to English and mathe-
matics, so no mind is really well
trained—educated in the truest
sense of the word—without a good
working knowledge of at least one
modern foreign language. As James
B. Conant, president emeritus of
Harvard University, said recently:
"Unless a person has acquired
something approaching mastery of
one foreign language, he has missed
an educational experience of the
first importance." Dr. Conant also
stressed the fact that the most diffi-
cult areas of study were science,
mathematics, and foreign language.
This is seldom realized.
Understanding of English, also,
is influenced and enhanced by the
study of a foreign language. Not
only are English constructions and
vocabulary highlighted but the
richness and beauty and worth of
the language are also better under-
stood and appreciated when one
can feel all that has gone into its
development.
Jawaharlal Nehru, the late prime
minister of India, wrote what I
think is one of the most sensitive
explanations of the very essence of
any great language:
A language is infinitely more than gram-
mar and philology—the science of the
structure and development of language.
It is the poetic testament of the genius
of a race and a culture, and the living
embodiment of the thoughts and fancies
that have molded them.

 
International
President's Page
nother Invitation
Coyn Guss
As the 1964-66 biennium draws all too swiftly to a close, it is the Presi-
dent's privilege and honor to use this page to invite all members to the
Thirty-Seventh Anniversary International Convention in the Sheraton-
Cleveland Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio, August 8-13, 1966. One year ago she
used this same medium to invite you to the four regional conferences.
These conferences, as you recall, offer an opportunity for us to deliberate
but not to take official action.
Action Items.
Unlike the regional conferences, the International Con-
vention will be a time for taking action on matters affecting the future
of our Society.
You have already received in the February
News
the report of the
international Committee on Constitution proposing certain amendments
to the present constitution. Each of these will be considered.
The international Committee on Program will present to the Convention
their proposal for the 1967-71 program theme. Since the international
program theme has such important implications for all chapters and
members, this presentation deserves serious consideration.
The international Committee on Scholarships will be bringing to our
attention the fact that applications for international scholarships always
exceed the number available. The Convention will want to consider the
feasibility of increasing the number of scholarships awarded annually.
Among our important educational services is our Travel Seminar, which
we have co-sponsored with the Comparative Education Society. An Ad
Hoc Committee on Travel Seminars will be asking us to consider the feasi-
bility of our sponsoring these travel tours.
The report of the international Committee on Nominations has been
printed in the March
News.
The election of 1966-68 officers and certain
committee members will be held during the International Convention.
Reports.
Conventions are invariably a time for reporting on the succes-
ses of the biennium. We shall eagerly await the reports of Margaret Boyd
and Ola Hiller, who have travelled abroad this year in the interests of
the Society and the Foundation. The program on Tuesday evening will
be devoted entirely to Margaret and Ola's addresses.
The President, the Headquarters Professional Staff members, and
the Administrative Board members will report their activities and

 
54
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
recommendations. Members of the Board of Trustees of the Educational
Foundation will discuss the projects which have been initiated, progress
to date, and some hopes for the future.
Announcements.
Committees have been carefully screening, voting,
and working toward making important announcements at the Conven-
tion. Among the more significant ones are:
International Achievement Award Recipient
Educator's Award Recipient
International Honorary Members
World Fellowship Recipients
These will be announced at the Birthday Luncheon on Thursday, at
which time recipients of International Scholarships for 1966-67 will also
be recognized.
Discussions.
As always, there will be opportunities for informal dis-
cussions. On Thursday morning seventeen concurrent groups will pro-
vide a more structured and formal program of discussion. Resource per-
sonnel for these groups have been provided excellent manuals. All mem-
bers will also receive discussion guides. The focus for the discussions will
be the program of study and action.
Exhibits.
A larger and more ambitious effort is being made to exhibit
ideas, projects, committee work, and state accomplishments. The Exhibi-
tion Hall in the hotel has been reserved for this purpose. Members should
visit and seriously consider these exhibits.
Social Functions.
In addition to carrying on the work of the Society,
we believe all in attendance will enjoy the social functions. The Cleve-
land Symphony "Pop" Concert; Ohio Night; hospitality extended by the
Northeast Region; the Birthday Luncheon; Regional and Special Break-
fasts; the Presidents and Founders Banquet, at which Edna McGuire
Boyd will be the featured speaker; the grand reception honoring incom-
ing and outgoing officers as well as Founders, past presidents, and inter-
national committee chairmen—all will be gala occasions.
Tours.
A number of near and far tours by bus, plane, and boat have
been announced in the
News.
Walking tours have been suggested and
others can be arranged. The Greater Cleveland area is rich in interest-
ing spots to visit. Those who can extend their stay to include pre- or
post-convention tours will, indeed, be fortunate.
In Conclusion.
The advance plans for the 1966 International Conven-
tion hold great promise. The challenges for our Society are great. Each
of you has an opportunity and responsibility for charting the course.
You are cordially and urgently invited to attend and participate. Let's
make this a great convention. Include the Cleveland Convention in your
summer plans. Help create the future of Delta Kappa Gamma.

 
n Memoriam
".
• . these immortal dead who lire again
in minds made better by
their
presence."
Alabama
Miss Lorine Barnes, past president of Xi Chapter, February 22, 1966, Birmingham.
Miss Hattie Finley, Alpha Lamba Chapter, past president of Beta Delta Chapter,
April 10, 1966, Birmingham.
Mrs. Mai Wallace Hickman, Nu Chapter, January 29, 1966, Cullman.
Mrs. Ruth Simmons, Alpha Lambda Chapter, January 26, 1966, Birmingham.
Mrs. Ora Lee Thompson, Phi Chapter, February 18, 1966, Montgomery.
Miss Pet Trotter, Zeta Chapter, November 28, 1965, Lincoln.
Mrs. Alice Wiesel, honorary member of Beta Chapter, February 17, 1966, Tuscaloosa.
Arizona
Mrs. Dagny Mae Harmon, Tau Chapter, March 25, 1966, Williams.
Arkansas
Mrs. Lela Hays, past president of Upsilon Chapter, July 9, 1965, Little Rock.
Mrs. Roy Keltner, Sigma Chapter, March 23, 1966, Brinkley.
Miss Lorin A. Messenger, Phi Chapter, March 27, 1966, Little Rock.
Mrs. Betty Lou Morris, past president of Chi Chapter, April 10, 1966, Harrison.
Mrs. Margaret Miller Reiman, Gamma Chapter, February 27, 1966, Memphis, Ten-
nessee.
Mrs. Willie Sullards, Alpha Mu Chapter, April 2, 1966, Little Rock.
California
Mrs. Maxaline Adams, Rho Chapter, February 26, 1966, Santa Ana.
Dr. Cecilia Irvine Bottomley, Epsilon Chapter, February 20, 1966, Santa Monica.
Miss Altha B. Crowley, past president of Alpha Eta Chapter, March 29, 1966, Sacra-
mento.
Miss Elsie E. Crowley, Sigma Chapter, February 27, 1966, San Francisco.
Dr. Elizabeth Gist Dozier, Xi Chapter, February 27, 1966, San Fernando.
Miss Myrnie A. Gifford, Alpha Iota Chapter, February 6, 1966, Oakland.
Mrs. Alice Lude, Gamma Theta Chapter, March 31, 1966, San Francisco.
Mrs. Roberta Maxwell, Rho Chapter, March 5, 1966, Fullerton.
Miss Marjorie C. Mears, Delta Epsilon Chapter, March 15, 1966, Brea.
Mrs. Irmel Orris Padgham, past president of Eta Chapter, March 11, 1966, Long
Beach.
Mrs. Gertrude H. Rounsavelle, Kappa Chapter, March 6, 1966, Los Angeles.
Mrs. Evelyn Schiesser, Alpha Alpha Chapter, March 8, 1966, Bakersfield.
Mrs. Bertha Sublett, Beta Alpha Chapter, March 9, 1966, Redding.
Mrs. Madelyn E. Windweh, Zeta Beta Chapter, March 3, 1966, San Francisco.
Colorado
Mrs. Ruth Anderson, Alpha Gamma Chapter, March 7, 1966, Denver.
Miss Belle Berliner, Beta Chapter, January 22, 1966, Pueblo.
Mrs. Amelia Christeson, honorary member of Phi Chapter, January 29, 1966, LaJunta.
Miss Mabel G. Moser, state founder, first president of Iota Chapter, March 18, 1966,
Trinidad.
Mrs. Opal Thompson, Lambda Chapter, February 3, 1966, Denver.

 
56
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
Delaware
Mrs. Ruth L. Crawford, Alpha Chapter, March 1, 1966, Wilmington.
District of Columbia
Miss Margaret M. Behan, Alpha Chapter, March 11, 1966, Baltimore, Maryland.
Florida
Miss Edna Barnes, Alpha Eta Chapter, past president of Sigma Chapter, April 8,
1966, Orlando.
Miss Ethel A. Belden, Kappa Chapter, first president of Epsilon Chapter, March 22,
1966, St. Petersburg.
Miss Margaret Clark, Lambda Chapter, March 29, 1966, Bartow.
Miss Erma Drayer, past president of Alpha Chapter, March 26, 1966, Jacksonville.
Miss Mary Ruby Johns, Kappa Chapter, February 1, 1966, Tampa.
Mrs. Corinne Hemphill Priest, Alpha Rho Chapter, February 7, 1966, Ocala.
Georgia
Mrs. Lula C. Cook, Pi Chapter, February 1, 1966, Moultrie.
Mrs. Katharine A. Lennox, Alpha Tau Chapter, September 8, 1965, Savannah.
Idaho
Miss Ellen Peterson, Epsilon Chapter, April 10, 1966, Pullman, Washington.
Illinois
Miss Helena D. Burke, Beta Zeta Chapter, January 10, 1966, Peoria.
Mrs. Avice Lee Davis,
Xi
Chapter, March 19, 1966, Charleston.
Miss Jessie Fay Miller, Upsilon Chapter, March 15, 1966, Urbana.
Miss Jeanne Soderstrom, Omicron Chapter, February 16, 1966, Streator.
Mrs. Alice Switzer, honorary member of Pi Chapter, January 20, 1966, Clinton.
Miss Mary M. Webster, Omega Chapter, March 5, 1966, Kewanee.
Miss Florence A. Wells, Alpha Kappa Chapter, December, 1965, Sparta.
Indiana
Mrs. Florence T. Akers, Alpha Eta Chapter, April 7, 1966, Indianapolis.
Miss Erruna Jane Bever, Alpha Upsilon Chapter, January 22, 1966, Williamsport.
Miss Gertrude Buscher, Omega Chapter, March 21, 1966, Greenwood.
Miss Ruth Mary Griswold, Beta Lambda Chapter, January 18, 1966, Bloomington.
Miss Loretta Grothaus, past president of Kappa Chapter, February 12, 1966, Rich-
mond.
Mrs. Arie
B.
Peters Hill, Upsilon Chapter, March 4, 1966, Seymour.
Mrs. Elaine Esary Holycross, Alpha Zeta Chapter, August 19, 1965, Columbia City.
Mrs. Erna Lee, Alpha Phi Chapter, December 12, 1965, Whittier, California.
Mrs. Mary Pfahl, Alpha Lambda Chapter, March 28, 1966, Evansville.
Iowa
Miss Kathryn Castillo, Alpha Omicron Chapter, January 12, 1966, Maryville, Missouri.
Miss Ruth Harmon, Alpha Omicron Chapter, January 10, 1966, Clarinda.
Miss Ann Larson, Psi Chapter, April 2, 1966, Marshalltown.
Miss Mamie Cordelia Lister, past president of Zeta Chapter, December 16, 1965,
Newton.
Mrs. Germaine Mohr Richardson, Alpha Chapter, March 5, 1966, Davenport.
Mrs. Genevra W. Williams, Alpha Pi Chapter, February 10, 1966, Waverly.
Kansas
Miss Gertrude V. Baker, Tau Chapter, March 3, 1966, Coffeyville.
Mrs. Anna Blaylock, Alpha Alpha Chapter, February 18, 1966, Newton.
Mrs. Nora Bell Borger, Alpha Tau Chapter, March 17, 1966, Sedan.
Mrs. Thelma Dawson, Phi Chapter, March 15, 1966, Emporia.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
57
Mrs. Naomi Edwards, Alpha Chapter, February 19, 1966, Wichita.
Miss Jessie Lowe, Kappa Chapter, state founder, first president of Alpha Mu Chapter,
January 31, 1966, Wichita.
Kentucky
Mrs. Margaret Cox, honorary member of Lambda Chapter, July, 1965, Lynch.
Miss Flora Inman, past president of Lambda Chapter, December, 1965, Corbin.
Miss Ruth Riley, Zeta Chapter, past state president, March 3, 1966, Covington.
Dr. Hilda Threlkeld, Theta Chapter, March 4, 1966, Maysville.
Louisiana
Mrs. May B. Dupont, Iota Chapter, March 27, 1965, Houma.
Miss Stella E. Worley, honorary member of Alpha Delta Chapter, February 21, 1966,
New Orleans.
Maine
Mrs. Maude E. Moody, past president of Alpha Psi S tate and Beta Chapter, March 13,
1966, Portland.
Maryland
Dr. Helen Gray Howery, Omicron Chapter, November 18, 1965, Baltimore.
Mrs. Phyllis Somerville, Lambda Chapter, June 28, 1965, near Ellicott City.
Mrs. Eleanor B. Waring, Epsilon Chapter, May 6, 1965, Annapolis.
Massachusetts
Miss Dorothea Abbot, Zeta Chapter, January 22, 1966, Pocasset.
Mrs. Rhoda B. Hall, Alpha Chapter, January 31, 1966, Springfield.
Miss Svea W. Kling, Phi Chapter, December 18, 1965, West Newton.
Miss M. Ethel McTearnen, Alpha Chapter, March 18, 1966, Holyoke.
Miss Helen R. Niedringhaus, Mu Chapter, December 21, 1965, San Rafael, California.
Michigan
Miss Marjorie Harger, Alpha Chapter, past president of Alpha Mu Chapter, March 19,
1966, Pontiac.
Miss Kathryn Leeke, past president of Nu Chapter, March 1, 1966, Jackson.
Mrs. Kathxyne Murphy, Zeta Chapter, September 9, 1965, Detroit.
Mrs. Elsie Bradshaw Stephenson, Alpha Chi Chapter, October 15, 1965, Jerusalem,
Jordan.
Minnesota
Miss Inez Adams, Iota Chapter, March 11, 1966, Winona.
Miss Hazel Goard, Delta Chapter, March 1, 1966, Virginia.
Mississippi
Mrs. Betsy Graham, Gamma Chapter, February 7, 1966, Meridian.
Miss Kathleen McBrayer, past president of Lambda Chapter, March 20, 1966,
Louisville.
Mrs. Ivah Wilber, Delta Chapter, March 22, 1966, Hattiesburg.
Missouri
Miss Ethel Emerson, Alpha Chapter, August 19, 1965, Kansas City.
Miss Mary W. Fisher, Nu Chapter, October 1, 1965, Marshall.
Mrs. Olive Irene Brown Godding, Mu Chapter, March 12, 1966, Lawrence, Kansas.
Miss Montana Rice, Iota Chapter, March 29, 1966, Palmyra.
Montana
Mrs. Mary Brennan Clapp, honorary member of Eta Chapter, March 28, 1966, Mis-
soula.

 
58
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
New Hampshire
Mrs. Mary Donald Deans, Alpha Chapter, January 18, 1966, Charlottetown, Prince
Edward Island, Canada.
New Jersey
Miss Clara V. Braymer, Gamma Chapter, November 8, 1965, Trenton.
Mrs. Pauline Magruder Grundy, Alpha Mu Chapter, February, 1966, Haledon.
Mrs. Laura Heard, Beta Chapter, February 13, 1966, Camden.
Mrs. Edith T. Higgins, Gamma Chapter, January 19, 1966, West Chester, Pennsyl-
vania.
Mrs. Kathryn Longcor, Epsilon Chapter, March 17, 1966, Dover.
Mrs. Maude McCloughan, Gamma Chapter, December 10, 1965, Flemington.
New Mexico
Mrs. Ella Sweem, Omega Chapter, August 22, 1965, Las Cruces.
New York
Miss Jessie Fremont Clark, Beta Chapter, May 2, 1965, Homer.
Miss Therressa B. Colvin, Mu Chapter, February 23, 1966, Marathon, Florida.
Miss Ruth M. Fraser, Theta Chapter, state treasurer, April 16, 1966, Buffalo.
Mrs. Mary B. Heller, Kappa Chapter, September 18, 1965, Jamestown.
Miss Laura Shufelt, Alpha Kappa Chapter, January 23, 1966, Albany.
Dr. Elvira J. Slack, honorary member of Epsilon Chapter, November 7, 1965, New
York City.
Mrs. Mildred Q. Van Wagner, Alpha Zeta Chapter, February 18, 1966, Poughkeepsie.
North Carolina
Mrs. Elsie Hall Formy Duval, Omega Chapter, April 9, 1966, Wilmington.
Mrs. Nettie Brogden Herring, past president of Delta Chapter and Eta State, Decem-
ber 27, 1965, Greenville.
Dr. Laura Plonk, Gamma Chapter, March 3, 1966, Asheville.
Mrs. Alice Paige White, Chi Chapter, August 30, 1965, High Point.
Ohio
Miss Lois E. Dann, Gamma Chapter, December 21, 1965, Columbus.
Mrs. Martha Farry, past president of Delta Chapter, March 3, 1966, Mansfield.
Miss Eleanor Florance, Tau Chapter, February 19, 1966, Shaker Heights.
Miss Ethel Garland, past president of Alpha Omicron Chapter, January 12, 1966,
Minersville.
Miss Marguerite Kurz, Alpha Psi Chapter, March 14, 1966, Zanesville.
Miss Violet Margaret McBride, Eta Chapter, March 20, 1966, Upper Sandusky.
Mrs. Gladys McCray, Alpha Chi Chapter, March 24, 1966, Greenfield.
Dr. Edith S. Miller, Alpha Psi Chapter, February 28, 1966, Zanesville.
Mrs. Maxine Mills, Gamma Beta Chapter, December 28, 1965, Toledo.
Miss Anna May Randolph, Beta Lambda Chapter, January 15, 1966, Columbus.
Miss Bernice M. Summer, Upsilon Chapter, April 17, 1966, Cleveland.
Oklahoma
Miss Adelia Clifton, Alpha Chapter, June 1, 1965, Oklahoma City.
Mrs. Alta E. Foster, Alpha Chapter, June 8, 1965, Oklahoma City.
Miss Lucile E. Taylor, Alpha Nu Chapter, December 7, 1965, Oklahoma City.
Mrs. Coral J. Young, Alpha Nu Chapter, March 19, 1966, Oklahoma City.
Oregon
Mrs. Myrtle Benfield, Alpha Gamma Chapter, November 26, 1965, Beaver.
Miss Olive H. Fischer, Pi Chapter, December 28, 1965, Hood River.
Mrs. Dessa Devin Hofstetter, Delta Chapter, January 16, 1966, Nyssa.

 
The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
59
Dr. Mary Purvine, Alpha Epsilon Chapter, June 10, 1965, Salem.
Miss Frances McGravahan Sherwood, Alpha Beta Chapter, April 14, 1966, Portland.
Miss Pauline Walton, Gamma Chapter, January 11, 1966, Eugene.
Pennsylvania
Miss Rebecca C. Barrick, Iota Chapter, November 23, 1965, Huntingdon.
Miss Mae A. Coale, past president of Alpha Chapter, January 15, 1966, Abington.
Miss Patricia Gilliland, Alpha Omicron Chapter, March 8, 1966, Sharon.
Miss Margaret M. Washabaugh, Lambda Chapter, March 29, 1966, Grove City.
Tennessee
Mrs. Ruth Haney, Phi Chapter, March 11, 1966, Nashville.
Mrs. Laura Rucker, Iota Chapter, March 6, 1966, Kingsport.
Texas
Miss Orenna Addison, honorary member of Delta Tau Chapter, February 16, 1966,
Dallas.
Mrs. Leta Ashley, Delta Chapter, February 4, 1966, Fort Worth.
Dr. Joyce Benbrook, Beta Omicron Chapter, March 13, 1966, Houston.
Mrs. Mary Pancoast Bogel, Beta Chapter, March 26, 1966, San Antonio.
Mrs. Nona S. Crews, honorary member of Gamma Omicron Chapter, January 21,
1966, Karnes City.
Mrs. Ella Faye Dromgoole, Gamma Omicron Chapter, March 23, 1966, Karnes City.
Miss Agnes Edens, past president of Delta Chapter, March 25, 1966, Fort Worth.
Miss Ethel Hood, Gamma Sigma Chapter, February 22, 1966, Gainesville.
Mrs. Cecile Johnson, Delta Gamma Chapter, March 16, 1966, Galveston.
Miss Maurine Martel, treasurer of Delta Chapter since 1938, April 16, 1966, Fort
Worth.
Mrs. Esther Reed, Alpha Omega Chapter, March 9, 1966, Port Arthur.
Mrs. Vades
0.
Richardson, Delta Delta Chapter, March 18, 1966, Wichita Falls.
Miss Ruth Richerson, Gamma Kappa Chapter, January 30, 1966, Clarendon.
Miss Thelma Sliger, Alpha Beta Chapter, February 10, 1966, Sweetwater.
Utah
Miss Auguste Margaret Uterman, past president of Alpha Chapter, August 12, 1965,
Salt Lake City.
Virginia
Mrs. Fay Nichols, Alpha Nu Chapter, April 8, 1966, Falls Church.
Washington
Miss Katherine M. Allison, Delta Chapter, March 29, 1966, Everett.
Mrs. Carrie B. Hills, honorary member of Kappa Chapter, March 7, 1966, Bellevue.
Miss Elsie Amelia Wendling, Lambda Chapter, May 17, 1965, Bellingham.
West Virginia
Mrs. Dorothea Cook Hall, Theta Chapter, April 7, 1966, Logan.
Wisconsin
Miss Helen Elizabeth Mitchell, Alpha Chapter, August 6, 1965, Madison.
Miss Martha J. Petty, Beta Chapter, February 27, 1966, Kenosha.
Miss Margaret Telfar, Beta Chapter, April 3, 1966, Kenosha.
Mrs. Marian Tschudy, past president of Gamma Chapter, February 28, 1966, Marsh-
field.
Wyoming
Miss Helen Petersdorff, Eta Chapter, December 18, 1965, Riverton.
Mrs. Miriam Wells, president-elect of Theta Chapter, April, 1966, Sundance.

 
THE ELTA K PPA GAMMA BULLETIN
Index to Vohime XXXII-1965-66
References are to quarterly issue and page
A
Adams, Ruth M.
The Creative Individual
. . . promotes interaction at all levels,
Fall : 9
Administrative Behavior and Organiza-
tional Climate—a Study.
Phyllis U.
Coker, Summer:45
Alexander, Mary.
Continuing Education:
Paramount for Understanding,
Spring:
24
American High School: Culture Carrier
and Pattern Changer, The.
Iona Jur-
den Lord, Spring:17
Another Invitation.
Carolyn Guss, Sum-
mer:53
ART
two-dimensional or three-dimensional
approach to teaching, Winter:53
Art of Communicating—Flo! Ho! Ho!,
The.
Mary H. Dooley, Spring:45
ASSISTING WOMEN
from other countries, Fall:28
Baker, Adelaide
N. What Are We Teach-
ing? War or Peace?
Spring:29
Beyond the Reach of Sight and Sound.
Anna C. Petteys, Fall:44
Bissett, Lois.
Communism versus the
American Dream,
Summer: 35
Bousfield, Betsy.
Creativity's Challenge,
Spring:11
Boyd, A. Margaret with Ola B. Hiller
and Alida W. Parker. Introduction and
Conclusion for
Summer of Contrasts
and Diversities: Tour of Far East
(re-
port of 1965 Far Eastern Seminar and
Field Study), Winter:19, 28
Brumby, Mary Hart.
Some Thoughts on
the Japanese Ethos,
Fall:39
Burgett, Earlene E.
Consideration for
Children
(one part of report on 1965
Far Eastern Seminar and Field Study),
Winter:23
Campbell, Clarice T.
The Historian's
Task,
Summer:25
Check-Point Culture.
Natalie Hays Ham-
mond, Spring:15
CHILDREN
'S BOOKS
encourage human variations by using,
Fall:21
Cianciolo, Patricia Jean.
Encourage Hu-
man Variations by Using Children's
Books,
Fall:21
Citation for the 1965 Achievement
Award.
Carolyn Guss, Fall:55
Coker, Phyllis U.
Administrative Be-
havior and Organizational Climate—a
Study,
Summer:45
COMMUNICATING
art of, Spring:45
why foreign language? Summer:50
Communism versus the American Dream.
Lois Bissett, Summer:35
Comparative Special Education for Men-
tal Retardates.
Beulah Meyer Link,
Winter:31
Consideration for Children.
Earlene E.
Burgett (one part of report of 1965
Far Eastern Seminar and Field Study),
Winter:23
Continuing Education: Paramount for Un-
derstanding.
Mary Alexander, Spring:
24

 
References are
to
quarterly issue and page
61
CONTRASTS
summer of, and diversities, Winter:18
Creation
(poem). Inez George Gridley,
Fall:27
Creative Individual, The.
Fall:5
. . .
brings surprise to the classroom,
Beatrice B. Harvey, 5
...
is a poet—the students, the poem,
Lawana Trout, 5
.
welcomes inventiveness
in
teachers,
Charlotte Elmott, 9
. . .
promotes interaction at all levels,
Ruth M. Adams, 9
.
seeks
ways to challenge college stu-
dents,
Elizabeth A. Greenleaf, 13
. . .
knows creative people must have
creative teachers,
Maycie K. South-
all, 13
CREATIVITY
and twenty-four hour day, Spring:5
creativity's challenge, Spring:11
imagination and its relation to fine arts,
Summer:17
new awakening of old idea, Summer:11
nurture of, Summer:5
two faces of, Summer•14
visit with Sylvia Ashton-Wamer,
Fall:17
we look at, Winter:5
Creativity
(poem). Ethel Miller, Sum-
mer:34
Creativity and the Twenty-four Hour
Day.
Frances L. Dufraine, Spring:5
Creativity's Challenge.
Betsy Bousfield,
Spring:11
Crises in the Teaching of Beginning Read-
ing.
Roma Gans, Winter:13
'Cultivate the Digerences.'
Catherine M.
Rathman (report of 1965
UNESCO
con-
ference), Spring : 42
CULTURE
American high school, carrier, Spring:
17
check-point, Spring:15
Denis Diderot on Women.
Dorothy Wirtz,
Summer:31
Dooley, Mary H.
The Art of Communi-
cating—Ho! Ho! Ho!,
Spring:45
Dufraine, Frances L.
Creativity and the
Twenty-four Hour Day,
Spring : 5
EDUCATION
continuing, paramount for understand-
ing, Spring:24
crises in teaching beginning reading,
Winter:13
encourage human variations, Fall:21
roles of men and women educators,
Summer:20
two-dimensional, three-dimensional ap-
proach to teaching art, Winter:53
what are we teaching? war or peace?
Spring:29
Edwards, Margaret Royalty.
Imagination
and Its Relation to the Fine Arts,
Sum-
mer:17
Ehnott, Charlotte.
The Creative Individ-
ual . . . welcomes inventiveness in
teachers,
Fall:9
Emergence of Women.
Ruth V. Yates
(one part of report of 1965 Far East-
ern Seminar and Field Study), Win-
ter:21
Erwourage Human Variations by Using
Children's Books.
Patricia Jean Cian-
ciolo, Fall:21
Ethiopa: Site of the 14th Annual WCOTP
Meeting.
Mathilda Gilles, Winter:41
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
why a, Summer:50
'Future Is a World Limited by Ourselves,
The.'
Carolyn Guss, Fall:53
Gans, Roma.
Crises in the Teaching of
Beginning Reading,
Winter:13
Getting the Most from Our Investments.
Carolyn Guss, Spring:57
Gilles, Mathilda.
Ethiopa: Site of the
14th Annual WCOTP Meeting,
Win-
ter:41
Greenleaf, Elizabeth A.
The Creative In-
dividual . . . seeks ways to challenge
college students,
Fall:13
Gridley, Inez George.
Creation
(poem),
Fall:27
Guss, Carolyn—( International President )
Another Invitation,
Summer:53
Citation for 1965 Achievement Award,
Fall:55
Getting the Most from Our Invest-
ments,
Spring:57
The Future Is a World Limited by
Our-
selves, Fa11.53
Toward More Egective Communica-
tion,
Winter:51

 
62
References are
to
quarterly issue and page
Halek, Loretta.
We Look at Creativity
(compilation of symposiums at 1965
Regional Conferences), Winter:5
Halvorson, Veda B.
Two-Dimensional or
Three-Dimensional Approach to Teach-
ing Art Structure,
Winter:53
Hammond, Natalie Hays.
Check-Point
Culture,
Spring:15
Harvey, Beatrice B.
The Creative Indi-
vidual . . . brings surprise to the class-
room,
Fall:5
Hiller, Ola B. with A. Margaret Boyd and
Alida W. Parker. Introduction and
Conclusion of
Summer of Contrasts and
Diversities (report
of 1965 Far Eastern
Seminar and Field Study), Winter:19,
28
Historian's Task, The.
Clarice T. Camp-
bell, Summer:25
Hogan,Ursula.
Impact of the West (
one
part of report of 1965 Far Eastern
Seminar and Field Study), Winter:25
HOME MANAGEMENT
value realization in, Fall:35
Houston, Celestine.
Take Time To Dream
(
poem ) , Spring :14
HUMAN VARIATIONS
encourage, by using children's books,
Fall :21
Imagination and Its Relation to the Fine
Arts.
Margaret Royalty Edwards, Sum-
mer:17
Impact of the West.
Ursula Hogan (one
part of report of 1965 Far Eastern
Seminar and Field Study), Winter:25
INTERNATIONAL PRESIDENT
Another Invitation,
Summer:53
Citation for 1965 Achievement Award,
Fall:55
Getting the Most from Our Invest-
ments,
Spring:57
The Future Is a World Limited by
Ourselves,'
Fall:53
Toward More Effective Communica-
tion,
Winter:51
INTERNATIONAL TREASURER
1964-65 report, Winter:46
JAPANESE
some thoughts on, ethos, Fall:39
Leadership: Attempted, Successful, Effec-
tive.
Alice H. Young, Spring:35
Link, Beulah Meyer.
Comparative Spe-
cial Education for Mental Retardates,
Winter:31
Lord, Iona Jurden.
The American High
School: Culture Carrier and Pattern
Changer,
Spring:17
Lous, Anne B.
Why a Foreign Lan-
guage?,
Summer:50
McDaniel, Gladys J.
Ours Is the Future,
Spring : 49
1964-65
Report of the International
Treasurer,
Winter:46
MENTAL RETARDATES
comparative special education for,
Winter:31
Miller, Ethel.
Creativity
(poem), Sum-
mer:34
Moore, Rosanna.
A New Awakening of an
Old Idea—Creativity,
Summer:11
Morgan, Etoile Jo.
Value Realization
in
Home Management,
Fall:35
New Awakening of an Old Idea—Crea-
tivity,
A. Rosanna Moore, Summer•11
North, Eleanor B.
On Literary Pilgrim-
age,
Summer:39
Nurture of Creativity, The.
Edna E.
Parker (introduction to 1966-67 pro-
gram focus), Summer:5
Nutterville, Catherine.
'United We Stand,'
Summer: 20
0
On Literary Pilgrimage.
Eleanor B.
North, Summer:39
OTHER COUNTRIES
when we assist women from, Fall:28
Ours
Is the Future.
Gladys J. McDaniel,
Spring: 49
Parker, Alida W. with A. Margaret Boyd
and Ola B. Hiller. Introduction and
Conclusion of
Summer of Contrasts and
Diversities
(report of 1965 Far Eastern
Seminar and Field Study), Winter:19,
28
Parker, Edna E.
The Nurture of Creativ-
ity
(introduction to 1966-67 program
focus ), Summer:5
Petteys, Anna C.
Beyond the Reach
of
Sight and
Sound, Fall:44

 
References are to quarterly issue and page
63
POEMS
Creation,
Inez George Gridley, Fall:27
Creativity,
Ethel Miller, Summer:34
Take Time To Dream,
Celestine Hous-
ton, Spring:14
Prayer,
Spring:63
Quality: Essential Ingredient for Leader-
ship.
Madge Rudd, Fall:47
Rathman, Catherine M.
'Cultivate the
Differences'
(report of 1965
UNESCO
conference), Spring:42
READING
crises in teaching beginning, Winter:13
Report of the International Treasurer-
1964-65.
Gladys J. McDaniel, Win-
ter:46
ROLES OF MEN AND WOIvIEN EDUCATORS
united we stand, Summer:19
Rudd, Madge.
Quality: Essential Ingre-
dient for Leadership,
Fall:47
SEMINAR AND FIELD STUDY (
1965)
summer of contrasts and diversities,
Winter:19
Some Thoughts on the Japanese Ethos.
Mary Hart Brumby, Fall:39
Southall, Maycie K.
The Creative Indi-
vidual . . . knows creative people must
have creative teachers,
Fall:13
SPECIAL EDUCATION
comparative, for mental retardates,
Winter:31
Summer of Contrasts arid Diversities
(re-
port of 1965 Far Eastern Seminar and
Field Study), Winter:19
Consideration for Children.
Earlene
E. Burgett, 23
Emergence of Women.
Ruth V. Yates,
21
Impact of the West.
Ursula Hogan, 25
Introduction and Conclusion. A. Mar-
garet Boyd, Ola B. Hiller, Alida W.
Parker, 19, 28
Take Tinie To Dream
(poem ). Celestine
Houston, Spring:14
TEACHING
crises in, beginning reading, Winter:13
encourage human variations, Fall:21
two-dimensional or three-dimensional
approach to, art structure, Winter:53
what are we, war or peace? Spring:29
Toward More Effective Communication.
Carolyn Guss, Winter:51
Trout, Lawana.
The Creative Individual
. . . is a poet—the students, the poem,
Fall:5
Two-Dimensional or Three-Dimensional
Approach to Teaching Art Structure.
Veda B. Halvorson, Winter:53
Two Faces of Creativity, The.
Marcia D.
Zwier, Summer.14
IJ
UNESCO CONFERENCE
cultivate differences, Spring:42
'United We Stand.'
Catherine Nutter-
ville, Summer:20
Utley, Frayn Garrick.
When We Assist
Women from Other Countries To Con-
tinue Their Educations,
Fall:28
V
Value Realization in Home Management.
Etoile Jo Morgan, Fall:35
Visit with Sylvia Ashton-Warner, A.
Marianne Wolman, Fa11:17
WCOTP
1965 meeting, Winter:41
We Look at Creativity (
compilation of
four symposiums at the 1965 Regional
Conferences) Loretta Halek, Winter:5
What Are We Teaching? War or Peace?
Adelaide N. Baker, Spring:29
When We Assist Women from Other
Countries To Continue Their Educa-
tions.
Frayn Garrick Utley, Fall:28
Why a Foreign Language?
Anne B. Lous,
Summer:50
Wirtz, Dorothy.
Denis Diderot on Wom-
en,
Summer:31
Wolman, Marianne. A
Visit with Sylvia
Ashton-Warner,
Fall:17
WOMEN
Denis Diderot on, Summer:31
when we assist, from other countries,
Fall :28
Yates, Ruth V.
Emergence of Women
(
one part of report of 1965 Far Eastern
Seminar and Field Study), Winter:21
Young, Alice H.
Leadership: Attempted,
Successful, Effective,
Spring : 35
Zwier, Marcia D.
The Two Faces of
Creativity,
Summer:14

 
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at Society meetings, conferences
and conventions and may wear it
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