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individually in the scope of this article. It is important to recognize the rich
                                    diversity of culture that exists within and across Indigenous communities.
                                    (pp. 83–84)
                             Furthermore, although it is possible that this work is inclusive to other populations
                             of  Indigenous  Peoples,  this  article will  focus  on  the  First  Peoples  in  the  United
                             States.  Within that area of strong interest, for the purposes of this article, we are not
                             addressing “who is Indian and who is not” (Goodwill & McCormick, 2012, p. 24),
        Dr. Amber Godwin,    as that is outside the scope of this work. Finally, our work will draw from subject-
        a member of Upsilon   matter experts in Indigeneity, those living inside and outside of the United States.
        Chapter of Texas State
        Organization, is an
        assistant professor                                   Frameworks
        at Sam Houston          Sabzalian (2019) identified six areas to frame Indigenous studies in the classroom:
        State University.    place, presence, perspectives, political nationhood, power, and partnerships. This
        She has experience   framework  also  provides  practices  for  how  to  empower  and  support  Indigenous
        teaching in PK–12,   voices and presence in today’s classrooms. By including such practices, teachers can
        undergraduate, and
        graduate settings.   help support identity development in their Indigenous students, providing a pathway
        In her research, she   for cultivating relationships and a sense of connectedness to the world (Markstrom,
        aims to develop      2011; Whitbeck et al., 2014).
        critical thinking
        experiences and      Place
        explore interventions   Students do not know where Indigenous people were because they do not hear
        that enhance social
        studies education.   Indigenous history in school. In fact, 87% of state standards across the United States
                             address  Indigenous  people’s  early  history  (Shear  et  al.,  2015)  without  including     a  timeline  for  current  conditions  or  contributions—despite  social  movements  to
                             reframe attribution in an empowering way (Anderson, & Christen, 2019). Still, for
                             many students, studying settlement is the only time they hear about Indigenous life,
                             and even then, the narrative is skewed, for example on the topic of land acquisition
                             (Farrell et al., 2021; Fixico, 2021).
                                Many  textbooks  describe  tribes  surrendering  land  through  treaties.  However,
                             when Indigenous leaders signed treaties, they usually did so with the understanding
                             that the genocide of their tribe would stop and that the tribe would retain land as well
                             as hunting and fishing rights—among other details specific to the tribe involved.
                             The terms of those agreements were not only ignored by the United States, but in
                             some cases the treaties were not signed by Indigenous leaders. This is an important
                             consideration when one recognizes that textbooks largely concentrate on Indigenous
                             history in the context of European settlement (Sanchez, 2007). Because the breadth
                             of Indigenous history spans much farther than settler history, treaties alone do not
                             provide  a  context  for  Indigenous  history,  and  “a  more  in-depth  use  of  primary
                             sources by Native authors will go far in the understanding of culturally relevant and
                             historically accurate information” (Sanchez, 2007, p. 317). Indigenous peoples were
                             everywhere, even on the seas (Woodward, 2015): For Indigenous people, place was
                             anywhere and everywhere.

                                It  is  impossible  to  know  the  number  of  Indigenous  students  whom  teachers
                             encounter in today’s classrooms because of the historical assimilative practices tearing
                             identity  from  Indigenous  peoples  (Ross,  2021)  and  faulty  identification  practices,
                             particularly for students with complex identities (Ault & John, 2017). Accordingly,
                             many people have attempted to define what it is to be Indigenous (Weaver, 2001).

        14                                            The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators
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