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peoples, that shaping hinged on the ability to educate, express, and engage in self-
            governance and build institutions to support these endeavors (Nikolakis & Nelson,
            2019). For some Indigenous people, that opportunity to educate others about the
            history of their nationhood did not happen (von der Porten et al., 2019), in some
            instances  due  to  legal  requirements  in  the  United  States  that  define  Indigenous
            nationhood.  For  Indigenous  articulations  of  nationhood  to  develop  of  their  own
            accord in an educational setting, a counter-narrative is required (Andersen, 2015)
            that can be supported by the use of primary sources from Indigenous perspectives
            (Sanchez, 2007).
               Collaboration,  technology,  and  global  movement  toward  social  change
            surrounding  Indigenous  rights  are  fueling  this  transformative  representation  of
            Indigenous peoples in the United States (Duarte, 2014; Alfred & Corntassel, 2005).
            Through this process of renewal and re-emergence (Martineau, 2014, p. 1), there is a
            new focus on regeneration, expression, and reinvigoration of governance, nationhood,
            culture, politics, and spiritual practices (Aldred, 2005; Corntassel, 2012). This is
            evidence of the self-determination and commitment that Indigenous peoples have
            toward fulfilling their self-determining authority. Incorporation of these strategies
            into the classroom will then support students’ knowledge and Indigenous students’

            Power                                              [Sabzalian’s framework (2019)]
               How  can  teachers  ensure  a  safe  space
            and  place  for  Indigenous  voices?  Because  of     also provides practices for
            previously  established  power  dynamics  and
            norms  that  exist  in  today’s  classrooms  in  the   how to empower and support
            United States (Mason et al., 2019), to be good
            teachers (Palmer, 1990) of Indigenous students,  Indigenous voices and presence
            teachers  must  intentionally  inform  their  own        in today’s classrooms.
            teaching practice (Brookfield, 2017).
               One  important  component  to  helping
            Indigenous  identity  development  is  to  believe
            students who say they are Indigenous. In fact, Indigenous identity validation has been
            found to correlate strongly to mental health (Williams et al., 2018). Because identity
            is “constructed, negotiated, and constituted through discourse and representation”
            (Quigley,  2019,  p.  696),  acceptance  of  representation  in  the  classroom  often
            delineates  identity-development  outcomes  and  well-being.  Conversely,  students
            who feel their identity is challenged or invalid may feel stress or be traumatized
            for their identity position (Phinney & Chavira, 1992; Rata et al., 2014). The direct
            effect of Indigenous students seeing themselves as Indigenous is the perception of
            themselves in social standings and in society (Quigley, 2019).
               All  teachers  have  a  responsibility  to  create  a  welcoming  environment  for
            discussions  about  diversity  in  their  classrooms  (Hollins  &  Govan,  2015).  With
            mostly  Eurocentric  narratives  (Abela  &  Dague,  2020)  presented  in  textbooks  in
            the United States, “state standards and teacher resources have a real impact on the
            ways people understand and interact with Indigenous People” (National Council for
            the Social Studies, 2018, p. 167), which can be detrimental to Indigenous students
            (Sabzalian, 2019). Indigenous students “have the right not to be subjected to forced
            assimilation” (Rata et al., 2014, p. 292), which the colonial processes that limit
            access to Indigenous ideologies and representation facilitate.

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