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Giles, 2013) and that does not understand Indigenous cultural values (Indian Child
                             Welfare Act Amendments of 1997).  Experiencing others’ lack of understanding may
                             lead to feelings of abandonment and conflict regarding one’s Indigenous identity
                             (Dillard & Manson, 2000).

                                Empowerment  via  emphasis  on  perspectives  can  be  developed  by  using
        Dr. Kathleen Rice    storytelling as an instructional method in all classrooms as a medium to foster not
        is Associate Dean    only  support  to  Indigenous  students  but  also  enrichment  to  all  students  through
        of Graduate Studies   the cross-cultural interactions that stories bring (Godwin, 2021b; Ladson-Billings,
        in the College of
        Education and an     2021). Teaching through stories can be particularly beneficial for those who are from
        associate professor   marginalized communities (Ladson-Billings, 1998) because they rely much more on
        in the Department of   narrative analysis to tell the stories of oppression than they would trust a textbook or
        Counselor Education   curriculum to preserve “their side” of the story. By purposefully including counter
        at Sam Houston State   narratives using authentic voices and stories in instructional practice, teachers can
        University.          enrich students’ understanding of their own folk culture (Adam, 2021; Bishop, 1990;      Bruner, 1990; Howard, 1991).
                                Allowing students the space and time to share and hear each other’s stories also
                             supports collective efficacy (Goddard, 2001) of the teachers and staff involved in the
                             teaching process. According to Kafele (2013), this is so because
                                    knowing who they are in history increases the probability that students will
                                    develop a deeper sense of purpose for their lives; it gives their existence in
                                    the world greater meaning when they know about those who struggled so
                                    they could have the opportunities that they now have. (p. 115)
                             Sharing authentic stories can help students “celebrate differences rather than go out
                             of [one’s] way to say one is better or best” (DeGrasse, 2020), and hearing stories
                             offers students direct or indirect information about the world in which they live
                             (Koss & Paciga, 2020). “Teachers who respect and invite students’ cultures into
                             the  classroom  have  opportunities  to  expand  the  understanding  and  perspectives
                             of everyone” (Ladson-Billings, 2021, p. 76), and story-sharing not only supports
                             culturally relevant pedagogy but is also supported by culturally sustaining pedagogy.
                                Community narratives are transmissions of truth (Shyman, 2020) that can be
                             transformative (Kester, 2008). Stories “provide a context for our relationships, our
                             identities, our sense of right and wrong, and our willingness to become involved in
                             something or not” (Shyman, 2020, p. xiii).  By allowing for and encouraging the
                             use of Indigenous community stories in a classroom, teachers can help Indigenous
                             students feel empowered by their identities (Johnson, 2003).

                             Political Nationhood
                                In the classroom, it is important to consider the power that nationalism has when
                             narrating  the  relationship  between  Indigenous  peoples  and  the  nation. After  all,
                             political and cultural nationalism often underlie education in all subject areas in the
                             United States (Rippberger & Staudt, 2003; Torres, 1998). For Indigenous students,
                             this manifests in school textbooks and curricula that overlook the diversity of tribes
                             that vary in culture, language, and attributes. It is notable that public education in the
                             United States is determined by legislation and that, even in its earliest stages, “The
                             task of governments was to carve the mould—the education institutions—in which
                             the children of nations should be shaped” (Wiborg, 2000, p. 235). For Indigenous

        16                                            The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin: International Journal for Professional Educators
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